We find that in order to achieve detectable spin injection a smal

We find that in order to achieve detectable spin injection a small contact area or thick SC samples are essential for direct contact spin injection devices. We investigate the use of thin metal films (Cu) proposed by Kumar et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 142110 (2007)]

and show that they are an excellent substitute for tunneling barriers (TB) in the regime of small contact area. Since most tunneling barriers are prone to pinhole defects, we study the effect of pinholes in AlO tunneling barriers and show that the reduction in the spin-injection ratio (gamma) is solely due to the effective area of the pinholes and there is no CB-5083 in vitro correlation between the number of pinholes and the spin-injection ratio. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3594712]“
“Efficient mixing in bioreactors is essential in order to avoid concentration gradients which can be harmful for mammalian cells To study mixing and its scalability in orbitally shaken cylindrical bioreactors we measured mixing times in containers with nominal volumes from 2 to 1500

L with a colorimetric method using two pH indicators Four operating parameters were tested the liquid height the shaking diameter the agitation rate and the inner diameter of the container The mixing time decreased as the agitation rate increased until a minimal value was reached As the shaking diameter was reduced a higher agitation rate was needed to OICR-9429 in vivo reach the minimal mixing time The liquid height did not have a significant effect on the mixing time but for a constant volume an increase of the inner diameter slightly reduced the mixing time The fastest mixed zones were close to the wall of the container while the zone in the center of the bulk liquid was the last to achieve homogeneity Our study showed that the free-surface shape correlated with the mixing

regime and that by keeping the inner-to-shaking diameter ratio as well as the Froude number (Fr) constant the free-surface shapes and the mixing regimes Selleck Cl-amidine of a 1500-L bioreactor could be mimicked in a 30-L bioreactor We concluded that the mixing in orbitally shaken cylindrical bioreactors ensures homogeneity for mammalian cell cultures at scales up to 1500 L and that the inner-to-shaking diameter is a suitable scale-up factor for mixing (C) 2010 Elsevier B V All rights reserved”
“Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810.

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