We have shown that CD40 engagement by CD40L expressed by a tumor-

We have shown that CD40 engagement by CD40L expressed by a tumor-cell vaccine can increase immunity against tumor antigens cross-presented by DCs 27 and that the CD40/CD40L axis is required for CTL induction by vaccination with GM-CSF/OX40L-transduced tumor cells 65. T cells expressing high levels,

but not low or null levels, of CD40L can adoptively transfer an efficient anti-tumor immunity 19. We propose here that OX40 GDC-0068 research buy triggering can indirectly enhance CD40 stimulation to tumor-infiltrating DCs by increasing CD40L expression by tumor-infiltrating Tem cells, otherwise kept in a quiescent state. In conclusion, in the present study we provide a mechanistic insight into the effects of OX40 stimulation, separately in Treg and in Teff cells, and specifically in the tumor microenvironment. Indeed, tumor-infiltrating Treg and Teff cells express peculiar molecular programs and functions compared with their peripheral counterparts, and consequently OX40 stimulation elicits tumor microenvironment-specific modifications and allows the “local” correction of “local” defects in both cell types, thus

finally leading to the restoration of a functional anti-tumor immunity. BALB/c mice were from Charles River Laboratory (Calco, Italy); CD40−/−, OX40−/− and Foxp3-GFP mice were provided by L. Adorini (Intercept Pharma, AZD0530 Perugia, Italy), N. Killeen (UCSF), respectively and R. Furlan (San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy) upon agreement with A. Rudensky (New York, USA). All these strains were backcrossed Fenbendazole for ten generations to BALB/c. Mice were maintained under pathogen-free conditions in our animal facility and used at 8 wk of age. CT26 cell line (ATCC) was cultured in DMEM (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% FBS; 5×104 CT26 cells were inoculated subcutaneously in the left flank of mice. When tumor was about 8×8 mm in size, mice were injected intra-tumor with 50 μg of purified anti-OX40 mAb (clone OX86, European Collection of Cell Cultures) or rat IgG (mock) and were sacrificed after 24 h for analysis. Animal experiments were authorized by the Fondazione

IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori Ethical Committee for animal use and were performed in accordance to the national law (DL116/92). FITC and PerCPCy5.5 anti-CD44 (IM7), PE anti-OX40 (OX86), PE and PerCPCy5.5 anti-IL-10 (JES5-16E3), PE and allophycocyanin anti-Foxp3 (FJK-16S), PE-Cy7 anti-CD4 (L3T4), PE anti-Kd (SF1-1.1.1), PE-Cy7 anti-CD11c (N418), allophycocyanin anti-CD62L (Mel14), PE anti-CD80 (16-10A1), allophycocyanin anti-CD86 (GL1), PE anti-CD8 (53–6.7), PE anti-B220 (RA3-6B2), PE anti-CD11b (MI/70) and streptavidin-PE were from eBioscience. Biotin anti-CD40L (MR1) was from BD Pharmingen. Abs were used at 5 μg/mL. Surface staining was performed in PBS supplemented with 2% FBS for 30 min on ice, except for CD40L (1 h on ice). Intracellular staining of Foxp3 was performed according to manufacturer’s instruction (eBioscience).

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