We inventorized developments in the last 2 5 years in the LOC-MS

We inventorized developments in the last 2.5 years in the LOC-MS field from two perspectives: analytical approach (Figure 1a) and application area (Figure 1b). The most commonly used approach is LC and the most commonly used application area is proteomics. The review is structured on approaches to sample preparation, direct infusion MS, separation and the total analysis system principle. Comprehensive reviews on LOC-MS have recently been published by Gao et al. [ 3••] and Feng et al. [ 4••]. In this critical review we argue that the combination of LOC and MS will prove to be the ideal combination for bioanalytical applications and we discuss the, in

our view, crucial steps forward and the most dominant trends. Common sample preparation techniques are liquid–liquid extraction

and solid-phase extraction; only one example of the latter was reported Ribociclib cost on LOCs in the last 2.5 years. Solid-phase extraction was integrated with in vitro cell culturing and will be discussed later in the review. In bottom-up proteomics proteolysis is an important part of the sample preparation workflow; the majority of LOCs focussed on this. Several devices integrating the proteomics workflow into one LOC were presented. One example is a fully integrated www.selleckchem.com/products/XL184.html electrowetting-powered LOC capable of automated performance of the whole proteomics workflow (from sample preparation to acquisition). MALDI was enabled by removing the top cover of the LOC after addition of the MALDI matrix. Then the open LOC was placed into a custom-made MALDI plate and analysis was performed [10]. A device with similar functionality was created using Quake valves to generate and control Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase droplets in an LOC coupled to MS via an integrated nano-ESI emitter [11]. Furthermore, a droplet microarray plate for the proteomics workflow was developed. This microarray was interfaced to ESI-MS

via an L-shaped capillary with a tapered tip that served as sampling probe and ESI source [12]. Tryptic digestion for proteomics after LC-based fractionation is normally performed off-line and suffers from low throughput. On-line methodologies involving immobilized trypsin have aspecific adsorption, which leads to carry-over. These problems were solved via an LOC in which LC effluent droplets were trypsinized and consequently quenched. The LOC was interfaced to MS via an integrated stainless steel emitter [13]. Another device interfaced droplet microfluidics with a microarray plate containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic spots for the observation of enzyme kinetics (angiotensin II to angiotensin I conversion) in a massive parallel format — 8265 droplets were deposited on the plate — as shown in Figure 2d — and dried using N2. Afterwards MALDI matrix was deposited and, because each dried spot represents a time-point, the reaction kinetics could be observed via MALDI-MS [8•].

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