We provided the first demonstration that it was indeed the case,

We provided the first demonstration that it was indeed the case, with the additional finding that healthy individuals

produced inhibitor Abs with high affinity [7]. The lack of detection of such inhibitors in healthy donor plasma was demonstrated to be related to the presence of corresponding anti-idiotypic Abs. Next, we showed that in haemophilia A patients with inhibitor successfully treated by infusion of FVIII, an increased production of anti-idiotypic Abs was inversely correlated with inhibitor titres, suggesting that one of the mechanisms by which infusion of FVIII induced tolerance was by eliciting an anti-idiotypic response [8]. Although encouraging for the design of an idiotype based therapeutic selleck inhibitor strategy, these studies were limited by the fact that inhibitor Abs used in our studies were polyclonal, with no clear knowledge of the diversity of the response, or, more precisely, the number of idiotypes we had to take into account. To decide whether or not such a strategy was realistic required evaluating the human anti-FVIII response at the clonal level. At the same time, results from other laboratories had indicated that only a limited number of FVIII epitopes were involved in the interaction

between FVIII and its physiological partners, such as VWF, phospholipids, FIX, FX and APC. We soon confirmed that a JAK inhibitor majority of anti-FVIII Abs were directed to epitopes not involved in FVIII function [9]. In other words, controlling the formation of inhibitors should be achieved by preventing and/or suppressing the formation of only a limited number of Abs. The neutralization of circulating inhibitors by formation of complexes with specific anti-idiotypic Abs should

be followed by rapid elimination of such complexes. Interestingly, anti-idiotype administration can be made by subcutaneous injections, which might be advantageous under some clinical circumstances. The fact that most inhibitors are IgG4 Abs renders it unlikely that activation of complement would occur. Altogether, the neutralization of the circulating inhibitors should be easy and with no side effects. Raising anti-idiotypic antibodies with a therapeutic potential 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 required to define first the target antigens, namely the idiotypes, and this can only be achieved using monoclonal inhibitory antibodies of human origin. As we were aware that only a limited number of FVIII epitopes were involved in the interaction between FVIII and its physiological partners such as VWF, phospholipids, FIX, FX and APC, we generated five human anti-FVIII Abs directed towards epitopes located on the C2-, A2- and C1-domain by immortalization of B cells from haemophilia A patient peripheral repertoire.

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