When the LoxP cassette was deleted, the strains became streptomyc

When the LoxP cassette was deleted, the strains became streptomycin resistant, hence enabling selection of the

deleted strains in media containing streptomycin and omitting ‘the pick and test’ to find the desired mutants as was also shown in other studies (Zhang et al., 2003; Rivero-Müller et al., 2007; Heermann et al., 2008). Another commonly used counter-selectable marker is the sacB gene encoding for the Bacillus subtillis secreted enzyme levansucrase (Pelicic et al., 1996). This marker has a disadvantage of producing a high frequency Alectinib solubility dmso of spontaneous point mutation, leading to a high background of false positives after negative selection (Pelicic et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 1998; Muyrers et al., 2000; Warming et al., 2005). The spontaneous mutations might also occur with the rpsL gene leading to false positives but this can easily be identified by checking for streptomycin sensitivity after integration of the LoxP cassette before proceeding to further steps. Other advantages of rpsL over sacB counter-selection system include the small size of the rpsL-neo cassette (1.4 kb) compared to sacB-neo

cassette (3 kb), which makes PCR amplification easy. Apart from U0126 in vitro the advantages of the rpsL counter-selection system, the strains selected using this method are limited in use because of their streptomycin resistance (Reyrat et al., 1998). The Cre/lox system has been shown to have several advantages over the other strategies used to generate genome rearrangements in bacteria (Campo et al., 2002; Yu et al., 2002; Fukiya et al., 2004; Suzuki et al., 2005). One of the advantages is that Cre recombinase does not need any host factors or additional processes for catalyzing the complete recombination between the loxP sites (Nagy, 2000). The method described in this

study has advantages for the site-specific integration of the loxP sites, allowing detailed design of the deletions because of the use of the lambda Red system. Another method that used the Cre/lox system for the deletion in E. coli was based on the random insertion of loxP sites in the chromosome mediated by loxP-containing Tn5 transposons (Yu et al., 2002), while the other one had a disadvantage Dapagliflozin of leaving an antibiotic resistance marker in the chromosome after each deletion (Fukiya et al., 2004). A disadvantage of our method is that the remaining loxP site after the deletion of the cassette would interfere with subsequent deletions in other parts of the genome, as reported before (Fukiya et al., 2004; Banerjee & Biswas, 2008). To overcome this, mutant loxP sites are used whereby after recombination leading to deletion, the loxP site becomes incompatible and inhibits excision by Cre recombinase, hence reducing the possibility of causing genomic instability (Thomson et al., 2003; Lambert et al., 2007).

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