While mycoplasmas would not come into contact with mannosylated y

While mycoplasmas would not come into contact with mannosylated yeast cell wall proteins in the murine host, there are several mannosylated proteins produced in the mammalian lung. The mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B are mannosylated Mitomycin C chemical structure at sites containing the motif WXXW (Perez-Vilar et al., 2004). These mucins bind to pathogens and are upregulated during bacterial infections including those of M. pneumoniae (Voynow,

2002; Kraft et al., 2008; Voynow & Rubin, 2009). The role of mycoplasmal capsule in host immune avoidance has for the most part not been previously studied, but Mycoplasma dispar is a possible exception. When co-cultured with lung fibroblasts, M. dispar became more resistant to killing by alveolar macrophages and had an increased amount of extracellular material on its surface that was observed by electron microscopy (Almeida et al.,

1992). Torin 1 price Although the possibility that this material consists primarily of host molecules from the fibroblasts that adsorbed to the surface cannot be discounted, this material may be the result of increased capsule production induced by the fibroblasts. As with M. pulmonis, capsular polysaccharide in many species of mycoplasma might have prominent roles in resisting phagocytosis. We thank P. Caldwell and P. Lao for technical assistance and D. Chaplin for providing the MH-S cell line. This work was supported by NIH grant AI64848. “
“The taxonomic characteristics of β-hemolytic streptococcal strains that reacted with Lancefield group M antisera were investigated. Group M streptococci have not been proposed selleck products as a

species to date. Four strains of the group M streptococci isolated from dog were located within the pyogenic group of the genus Streptococcus on 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis; the group M strains were located a short distance away from all other members of the group. The homology values of 16S rRNA gene sequences between group M strains and all other streptococci were<95.6%. Group M strains exhibited low levels of DNA–DNA homology to other streptococcal species. Some biochemical traits, such as β-galactosidase activity and acid production from glycogen, could distinguish these group M strains from other closely related species. Thus, these strains are proposed to constitute a new species –Streptococcus fryi sp. nov. The type strain is PAGU 653T (=NCTC 10235T=JCM 16387T). The genus Streptococcus currently consists of >60 species, which can cause a large number of infections in humans and various animals (Facklam, 2002; Spellerberg & Brandt, 2007). To differentiate the streptococci, various parameters and methods have been used (e.g. colony size, hemolysis, fermentation ability and tolerance tests). The serological test reported by Lancefield (1934) is one of the most common methods used for classification.

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