, 2006; Persson et al, 2007) To date, the possible functions of

, 2006; Persson et al., 2007). To date, the possible functions of CDCPs remain unknown. They may be based on its CBS domain (Kushwaha et al., 2009). CBS domains may be associated with several proteins such as AMP-activated protein kinase, which is considered a sensor of cellular energy regulating the energy level of the cell against conditions of stress (King et al., 2008). The overexpression of UspA and CDCPs under acid stress may play a crucial role in the acid resistance of L. brevis NCL912 via the DNA repair system and regulating cellular energy. IMPDH is a rate-limiting

enzyme in purine metabolism and is important in controlling the guanine nucleotide pool and managing cell proliferation (Hedstrom & Gan, 2006). Under acid stress, IMPDH of L. brevis NCL912 was overexpressed, implying that the damaged DNA from acid stress may be repaired by guanine nucleotide synthesis. MK0683 Protein synthesis, NVP-BEZ235 molecular weight one of life’s fundamental processes, is usually divided into three steps: initiation, elongation and termination (Selmer et al., 1999). However, there is another important step in bacteria and eukaryotic organelles, namely ribosome recycling or disassembly of the post-termination complex. In bacteria, this is catalysed by the RRF (Selmer et al., 1999). RRF is an essential protein found in bacterial cells that is responsible for dissociation of ribosomes from mRNA after the termination of translation. Its main

function is to recycle ribosomes for the next round of protein synthesis. RRF in Escherichia coli is overexpressed under heat stress and is essential for growth of the bacterium (Janosi et al., 1994). When L. brevis NCL912 was exposed to acid stress, levels of expression of 50S ribosomal protein L10, Neratinib ic50 SSU ribosomal protein S30P and RRF were upregulated. 50S ribosomal protein L10 is located at the large subunit and SSU ribosomal protein S30P at the SSU of the ribosome. 50S ribosomal protein L10 contributes to the regulation of replication, transcription and translation. SSU ribosomal protein S30P is associated with the formation of the initiating complex during protein synthesis. It is presumed that SSU ribosomal protein S30P triggers

the initiation of protein synthesis in L. brevis NCL912, and that 50S ribosomal protein L10 assists in the process of synthesis. Finally, RRF recycles ribosomes by splitting them into subunits and rapidly releasing the bound mRNA for the next round of protein synthesis. This whole process protects L. brevis NCL912 against acid stress. GAPDH is a key enzyme in glycolysis using either NAD(H) or NADP(H) as a coenzyme and simultaneously produces ATP. A previous study demonstrated that glycolysis plays a key role in the oxidative stress of probiotic bacteria (Talwalkar & Kailasapathy, 2003). Here, NADP-GAPDH of L. brevis NCL912 was upregulated under acid stress conditions, suggesting that acid stress induces early perturbations in glycolysis.

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