, 2012) In the

, 2012). In the Selleckchem Pexidartinib current study, we were able to distinguish if individual infected birds were vaccinated or not, since the vaccinated group possessed higher specific responses than unvaccinated birds. Our results suggest that infection of CKC with recombinant virus containing transgenes for an epitope of interest could be used to increase the sensitivity of assays

to detect antigen and epitope specific T cells. In summary we have developed a sensitive method for the detection of antigen specific T cells, which will be important in the analysis of immune responses to both vaccines and pathogens. The assay provides greater sensitivity than the use of inactivated or live virus in ELISpot, PI3K inhibitor and reduced background compared with peptide library ELISpot. Our method is also more accessible to a wider community than methods employing expensive peptide libraries, the interpretation of which data is rendered problematic due to an incomplete knowledge of avian MHC binding specificities. While we have demonstrated its efficacy for influenza, this technique can be applied to the study of T cell responses for many avian pathogens. We also demonstrated that the use of recombinant virus to infect CKC can further define antigen specificity, and additionally

reduce the requirement to handle live zoonotic pathogen, an important safety consideration. We thank Dr. Mike Skinner for providing the Fowlpox construct and Dr. Sarah Gilbert for providing the MVA constructs. We thank John R. Young for his comments and help in analyzing data. We would like to acknowledge the expert and dedicated help of the Animal and Media Services staff at the Pirbright Institute. This work was funded by the BBSRC (Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council) under grant number BB/E011691/1. PAK6 The

funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. “
“Monitoring antigen-specific T-cell immunity is central in clinical trials aiming to develop innovative preventative and therapeutic vaccines (Seder et al., 2008). In order to compare the immunogenicity of different vaccine candidates between multiple clinical trials, the standardization of the procedures used for blood collection, processing, preservation and blood cell analysis is of utmost importance (Maecker et al., 2005, Britten et al., 2008 and Mallone et al., 2011). Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) is a flow cytometry-based assay increasingly used to identify, quantify and qualify antigen-specific T-cell mediated immune (CMI) responses in vaccine clinical trials (Kierstead et al., 2007, Boaz et al., 2009, Olemukan et al., 2010 and Kutscher et al., 2013).

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