2,26 Most of the CPE episodes observed in France were related to cross-border transfer, mainly after hospitalization in countries abroad where CPE are endemic. Moreover, the origin of index
cases was highly consistent with population migration routes and countries most frequently visited by French tourists.11,12,27,28 Because OXA-48 remains difficult to detect, especially when it is not associated with an ESBL, enhanced surveillance and rapid identification are essential to prevent cross-transmission.29 The European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) began collecting antimicrobial susceptibility data for invasive K pneumoniae in 2005.30 In 2008, 12,227 isolates were reported Trametinib chemical structure from 31 countries, and for the first time, the EARSS network was able to provide trends in time, as results are available now from the last 4 years. Carbapenem resistance learn more is still absent in most countries (Figure 1).30 Seven countries reported from 1 to 5% resistance: Bosnia and Herzegovina (3%), Italy (2%), Latvia (3%), Norway (1%,), Portugal (1%), Turkey (3%), and the UK (1%). In three countries, carbapenem resistance is considerably higher: Cyprus (10%), Greece (37%), and Israel (19%). In the August 2010 issue
of The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Kumarasamy and colleagues provided evidence that NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae (mostly K pneumoniae and E coli) are widespread in India and Pakistan.31 They also identified patients in the UK infected with
NDM-producing bacteria who had recently traveled to India for various types of medical procedures. Since 2008, there has been repeated import of NDM-1-positive bacteria from the Indian subcontinent to Europe, the United States, Canada, Asia, and Australasia, which was often mediated Urease via transfers of patients, as well as some direct transmission in Europe and some unaccounted clusters linked to the Balkans.32,33 Enterococci belong to the resident flora of the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Under normal circumstances, they are harmless commensals and are even believed to have positive effects on a number of gastrointestinal and systemic conditions. Resistance to glycopeptides has emerged first in the United States, and more recently, in Europe.34 The emergence of VRE in Europe is alarming because of the pan drug-associated resistance involving difficulties to treat infected patients. Moreover, glycopeptides are one of the last lines of treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus (MRSA) infections and the resistance gene can spread from VRE to MRSA strains. The transmission of this glycopeptides resistance to other bacteria such as MRSA, which is highly pathogenic and widespread, is quite rightly feared. Seven cases of VRSA have already been described in the United States.