32 Selby et al. reported an inverse association between total iron-binding capacity and subsequent risk for lung cancer, but little evidence of an association for other cancers.33 A Finnish study found increased risks for colorectal and lung cancer associated with high transferrin saturation.34 For several of the prospective studies that did not find positive associations, the highest categories of transferrin
saturation or serum ferritin were low, and it is possible that associations restricted to high body iron stores might have been missed. Other mechanisms might also explain the association PF-02341066 molecular weight between HFE genotype and risk of cancer. HFE is a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein and has been purported to have an immunological function whereby individuals with HFE variants have abnormal expression of MHC class I molecules and an impaired class I antigen presentation
pathway,35 as well as also having an altered CD4/CD8 ratio.36 This may be responsible for the finding that HFE variants selleck compound have increased risk of sustained viral response in chronic hepatitis C.37 Studies reviewed by Santos et al. found genes that occur in the commonly amplified (DNA copy number aberration) regions of chromosome 6p (the most commonly amplified genomic interval is 6p21–p23.) have helped to identify molecular pathways that become deregulated during tumor progression in diverse tumor types.38 It has been proposed that chromosome 6p harbors one or more oncogenes that are in the same chromosomal region as the HFE gene,39 and are directly involved in tumor progression, with a bias toward solid tumors (the HFE gene has been mapped to the locus 6p21.3).40 Similarly, Motokura et al. have mapped the human cyclin D3 gene (CCND3) to chromosome 6pq13, and members
of this family of genes have been implicated as possible proto-oncogenes for parathyroid, lymphoid, and mammary tumors.41 Alternatively, there may be an as-yet undiscovered interaction of HFE check details with other genes accounting for the increased cancer risk. In conclusion, people homozygous for the C282Y variant of the HFE gene are at a two-fold increased risk for colorectal cancer and female breast cancer, but not for prostate cancer. Clinicians caring for patients with hereditary hemochromatosis should take this into account when deciding on screening recommendations for colorectal and breast cancer or evaluation of relevant or suggestive clinical signs and symptoms. The authors thank the participants, the original investigators and recruitment team, and the participants of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“The diagnosis, prognosis, and assessment of disease activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) require investigating clinical, radiological, and histological criteria, as well as serum inflammatory markers.