5% in HbA1c reported with colesevelam in combination therapy with either metformin or a sulphonylurea.51,52 As they are not absorbed, gastrointestinal side effects are common with these agents. Although constipation is the most common, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting are also commonly reported and could be exacerbated post-transplantation with mycophenolate mofetil. In addition, absorption of fat-soluble vitamins is disrupted and patients can become vitamin FK228 solubility dmso A-, D- and K-deficient and require supplementation.
Cases of hypoglycaemia have been reported in trials but in the context of combination therapy. It is safe to use in the context of renal impairment and would appear attractive because of beneficial effects on both hyperglycaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Pramlintide is a synthetic analogue of the pancreatic beta-cell hormone amylin and aids glucose absorption by delaying gastric emptying, increasing satiety and inhibits glucagon production.53 It reduces HbA1c by approximately 0.5–0.7% and
produces modest weight loss in clinical studies when added to basal insulin.54 Its side effects include hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal complaints, especially nausea, although the effects are likely to abate over time. It is DMXAA ic50 administered subcutaneously pre-meal and dosage adjustments are not required for patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 20–50 mL/min), although no guidance is available for patients with an eGFR less than this or on renal replacement therapy.55
At the present moment in time, this agent is only available in the USA as adjunct therapy for individuals on insulin therapy. Despite the wide variety of antiglycaemic agents available, it can be appreciated that there are several caveats and limitations to the application of some of these agents to patients with concomitant renal disease. Both (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate diabetes mellitus and renal disease are epidemic and it is inevitable that there will be a growing population of individuals who overlap both clinical entities. Optimal pharmacological therapy for such individuals requires a critical appraisal of existing guidelines in the context of concurrent renal disease to ensure both safe and efficacious treatment for diabetics within the spectrum of renal disease. The author has no relevant disclosures or conflict of interest to declare. “
“Aim: To evaluate the compassionate use of cinacalcet for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients who are not on dialysis. Methods: Patients with stage 4–5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) who were not on dialysis, had an intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level greater than 300 pg/mL, and had not responded satisfactorily to treatment with phosphate binders and vitamin D were prospectively studied.