62 (95 % CI 0 45–0 86) Other meta-analyses yielded similar resul

62 (95 % CI 0.45–0.86). Other meta-analyses yielded similar results in terms of the prevention of CIN by sodium bicarbonate-based CRT0066101 solubility dmso hydration. However, no significant differences between sodium bicarbonate-based learn more hydration and saline hydration were observed in terms of the

introduction of hemodialysis, incidence of heart failure, or mortality. They concluded that sodium bicarbonate-based hydration may decrease the incidence of CIN, but does not differ from saline hydration in terms of kidney function and vital prognoses. Researchers have pointed out that studies included in these meta-analyses differ substantially in design, and that sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was reported effective in many published articles, and was concluded to be ineffective in other studies published as abstracts only. In a meta-analysis of 14 studies (3 large and 11 small studies) of 2,290 patients, there was no evidence of a benefit for hydration with sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium chloride for the

prevention of CIN among the large trials [116]. The report pointed out that including studies of lower methodological quality in the analysis may have led to a false conclusion. In this report, the researchers performed an analysis limited to 8 studies meeting the quality criteria, including >100 patients enrolled, and a similar dose and route between treatment Succinyl-CoA groups if N-acetylcysteine (NAC) use was permitted. The RR for sodium bicarbonate (n = 945) compared with that for sodium chloride (n = 945) was 0.71 (95 % CI 0.41–1.03), which was not a statistically significant Selleck BI 10773 difference, but suggested a superior efficacy of the sodium bicarbonate-based hydration. Readers of these meta-analyses should be aware that a typical protocol of sodium bicarbonate-based

hydration consists of a 1-h infusion of about 150 mEq/L solution at 3 mL/kg/h for 1 h before contrast exposure and a 6-h infusion of the solution at 1 mL/kg/h for 6 h after contrast exposure, and is different in duration from a typical protocol of saline hydration with a 6–12 h infusion at 1 mL/kg/h before and after contrast exposure. In these meta-analyses, data were not adjusted for the difference in the duration of infusion. Also, preprocedural hemofiltration has been reported to be effective for preventing CIN, and alkalinization of body fluids is also considered effective in the prevention of CIN (see ). However, in a study of patients randomized to receive either sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate administered at the same rate (3 mL/kg for 1 h before CAG, decreased to 1.5 mL/kg/h during the procedure and for 4 h after the completion of the procedure), the incidence of CIN did not differ between the 2 groups [117]. Since 2009, 7 reports have been published on the use of sodium bicarbonate-based hydration.

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