7% of the FFRs showed abnormal cystometry, characterized primaril

7% of the FFRs showed abnormal cystometry, characterized primarily by increased phasic contractions.30 Hypercholesterolemia is a component of metabolic syndrome. The diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome are defined differently by various organizations, but all definitions of metabolic syndrome include dyslipidemia.31–35 According to the most commonly used Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definition, metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence

of three or more of the following five characteristics: (i) waist circumference greater than 102 cm for male Selleckchem DMXAA or greater than 88 cm for female; (ii) triglycerides 150 mg/dL or greater; (iii) HDL cholesterol less than 40 mg/dL for male or less than 50 mg/dL

for female; (iv) systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater; (v) fasting glucose of 110 mg/dL or more.33 High-fat diet rats used in the aforementioned studies had not only hypercholesterolemia but also other components of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance. In the report by Son et al.10, the mean body weight in the cholesterol group was significantly higher than that in the control GDC-0068 manufacturer group. Hyperlipidemic rats in the study by Rahman et al.9 also had a significantly higher mean body weight than the control rats, in addition to a higher mean arterial blood pressure, though without statistical significance. In the report

by Huang et buy Abiraterone al.11, the mean body weight and level of fasting glucose were elevated in high-fat diet rats. Furthermore, high-fat diets have been used to model obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in rodents for many decades because the complications developed by high-fat diets resemble the human metabolic syndrome.36 Therefore, the DO in high-fat diet rats cannot be said to have been affected by a single factor like hypercholesterolemia; rather, it is more reasonable to say that all components of metabolic syndrome have an effect on the occurrence of DO. Metabolic syndrome is known to cause autonomic sympathetic overactivity through complex and incompletely elucidated mechanisms.37 Hyperinsulinemia, a key concept of metabolic syndrome, is associated with increased sympathetic activity via enhanced glucose metabolism in ventromedial hypothalamic neurons.38 Increased activation of the α-adrenergic pathway increases smooth muscle contraction throughout male genitourinary tract structures, including the prostate, bladder neck, and urethra.39 Therefore, ANS overactivity may contribute to DO. An association was also shown between ANS overactivity and voiding dysfunction in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model. Steers et al.40 reported that SHRs voided three times more frequently than normotensive rats and that such frequency can be reduced by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists.

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