9 Mosquito bite protection is an essential component of malaria prevention, and N,N-diethyl-3-methybenzamide (DEET) repellents can be used for infants aged >2 months.10 Generally, pediatric malaria case numbers are increasing as more children travel and the profile of migration CT99021 datasheet is changing.11–13 In the study from Stäger et al.,14 returning to the country of origin to visit friends and relatives was a significant risk factor for the acquisition of malaria. A recent analysis suggests that it is cost-effective to subsidize malaria chemoprophylaxis for low-income travelers visiting high-risk malaria endemic areas, and this may encourage use of malaria prophylaxis in VFR travelers.15
School-, sport-, and community-based strategies to reach VFR children need to be evaluated.16 A relation between the place of exposure and the spectrum of disease can help in diagnostic approaches and empiric therapies.17,18 Nontravel medicine practitioners should be reminded to ask the question “did you travel recently?” when taking a history. Depending on the travel destination, travelers may be exposed to a number of infectious diseases; exposure depends on the presence of infectious agents in the respective area. The risk of becoming infected will vary according to the purpose of CX-5461 molecular weight the trip, the itinerary within the area, the standards
of accommodation, hygiene, and sanitation, as well as the behavior of the traveler and the reason for travel—whether it is for Baricitinib tourism, VFR travel, or for immigration.19 VFR travelers are exposed to an increased risk of travel-related health problems.20–22 General practitioners should be aware of possibly serious travel-related disease in VFR risk groups in their community. VFR travel to Africa is associated with malaria, while VFR travel to Asia including Turkey is associated with typhoid fever. Two cases of tuberculosis in VFR
children were acquired in Turkey and Kosovo. Physicians attending to returned ill children need to be aware of and to diagnose a complete range of diseases from commonplace to serious. Parents can be provided with a simple range of pediatric medications and instructions on how to treat self-limiting conditions. The pre-travel consultation is an opportunity to provide concise preventive advice for pediatric travelers. The country of origin of settled migrants has an important role to play in the diagnosis profile. VFR children will present with potentially more serious illnesses such as typhoid fever, hepatitis A, and malaria. We thank the members of the secretariat especially Mrs Lopez from the University of Zürich Children’s Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases. P. S. has received research grants and consultancy fees from F. Hoffmann La Roche, speaker’s honorary from GSK, and is an advisory board member of sigma tau. The other authors state that they have no conflicts of interest to declare. All authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper. T. H.