After the growth proceeded to opacity, an aliquot was removed and

After the growth proceeded to opacity, an aliquot was removed and used as an inoculum in a new bottle with fresh medium and an additional 5% ethanol for another 12-h incubation. The cultures were diluted and spread on agar plates without ethanol. Individual colonies, visible after 8–10 h, were subcultured in medium supplemented with 10% ethanol to confirm the ethanol tolerance of the strains. The strains were purified by repeatedly isolating single colonies in agar plates at least five times. The type strains of A. flavithermus DSM 2641T, Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis DSM 12423T and Anoxybacillus kestanbolensis NCIMB 13971T were obtained from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ). Anoxybacillus eryuanensis KCTC 13720T and Anoxybacillus tengchongensis KCTC 13721T were acquired from the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC). The cells were initially cultured overnight in LB medium with 4% ethanol. The culture was washed

twice in unsupplemented medium to remove ethanol and then used for inoculation of medium with ethanol added at concentrations Y-27632 manufacturer of 0–10%. The cultures were incubated without shaking at temperatures in the range of 45–65 °C for 60 h. Samples for measurement were withdrawn directly from the sealed bottles with sterile syringes before and after incubation. Growth was measured spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. To evaluate whether this organism can metabolize ethanol, ethanol was analyzed by Agilent 7890A GC System equipped with an Agilent 7694E Headspace Sampler (Agilent Technologies). The microbial biofilm and its formation were observed by light microscopy (Olympus, BX51). Sterile glass slides were placed in LB culture supplemented with 13% ethanol. The culture was incubated without shaking at 60 °C for 24 h. The slides were then taken out of the bottles and washed

three times with H2O. The remaining cells were fixed with methanol for 10 min and stained with 2% (w/v) crystal violet for 5 min. Physiological and biochemical tests were carried out without ethanol addition at 60 °C. Conventional biochemical tests were performed according to standard methods (Smibert & Krieg, 1994). Anaerobic growth experiments were carried out in Hungate tubes. The ability to utilize Dichloromethane dehalogenase different carbon source was examined in basal medium (Pikuta et al., 2000). To minimize the effects of growth temperature and different media on bacterial fatty acid composition, all strains were uniformly incubated at 60 °C for 24 h on agar LB medium. Then, the analysis of cellular fatty acid methyl esters were performed according to the method described in the Sherlock Microbial Identification System manual (version4.0, MIDI). The final extracts were analyzed by GC/MS in scan mode, using an Agilent 7890 GC/5975 MSD system (Agilent Technologies).

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