After this period of relative stability, aggregation accelerated

After this period of relative stability, aggregation accelerated to produce Belnacasan in vitro micron-sized aggregates by day 3. Actually,

the continuous monitoring of MNP size by DLS after this point is less meaningful as the dominating motion is the sedimentation of large aggregates [71]. For PEG 6k and PEG 10k that have a rather low degree of polymerization, the loss of stability over a day or two could have been due to slow PEG desorption that would not be expected of larger polymers. Nevertheless, PEG 100k-coated MNPs were not as well stabilized as the PEG 6k- or PEG 10k-coated ones, despite the higher degree of polymerization that one might expect to produce greater adsorbed layer thicknesses and therefore longer-ranged steric forces. In addition to the degree of polymerization, as discussed by Golas and coworkers [72], the colloidal stability of polymeric stabilized MNPs is also dependent on other structural differences of

the polymer employed, such as the chain architecture and the identity of the charged functional unit. In their work, DLS was used to confirm the nanoparticle suspensions that displayed the least sedimentation which was indeed stable against aggregation. In addition to the popular use of DLS in sizing individual MNPs, this analytical technique is also being employed to monitor the aggregation behavior of MNPs and the size of final clusters formed [55, AZD6738 73]. The study of particle aggregates is important since the magnetic collection is a cooperative phenomenon [74, 75]. Subsequently, it is much easier to harvest submicron-sized MNP clusters than individual particles. Hence, a magnetic nanocluster with loss-packed structure and uniform size and shape has huge potential for various engineering applications in which the real-time separation is the key requirement [76]. Therefore, the use of DLS to monitor the aggregation kinetic of MNPs is important to provide direct feedback about the time scale associated with this process Verteporfin cell line [55, 77]. Figure 8 illustrates the aggregation behavior of three species of 40-nm reactive nanoscale iron particles (RNIP),

27.5-nm magnetite (Fe3O4) MNP, and 40-nm hematite (α-Fe2O3) MNP [73]. Phenrat and coworkers have demonstrated that DLS can be an effective tool to probe the aggregation behavior of MNPs (Figure 8a). The time evolution of the hydrodynamic radius of these particles from monomodal to bimodal distribution revealed the aggregation kinetic of the particles. Together with the in situ optical microscopy observation, the mechanism of aggregation is proposed as the transitions from rapidly moving individual MNPs to the formation of submicron clusters that lead to chain formation and gelation (Figure 8b). By the combination of small-angle neutron scattering and Selleckchem Anlotinib cryo-TEM measurements, DLS can also be used as an effective tool to understand the fractal structure of this aggregate [78]. Figure 8 Evolution of hydrodynamic radius and MNP aggregation and gelation.

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