Although there is a weak correlation between the serum VPA level

Although there is a weak correlation between the serum VPA level and the clinical findings, numbness can be observed in patients with serum VPA level of >500 mg/L, and in patients with serum VPA levels of >1000 mg/L, metabolic disorders and coma may be seen [7]. In our study, the minimum, maximum, and average levels of serum VPA were 65 mg/L, 1005 mg/L, and 164.3 mg/L, respectively. We observed severe intoxication symptoms, particularly in Group 3. (Group – 3: FDA approval PARP inhibitor VPA serum level of 125 mg/L above) The main treatment modality in antiepileptic poisoning is supportive

therapy. Naloxone is recommended for some patients who show symptoms of central nervous system depression [17]. Seizure cases can be treated with intravenous diazepam with a dosage of 0.1 – 0.3 mg/kg [18]. To decrease the serum drug level, extracorperal methods such as hemofiltration and also carnitine are used [7], [17], [18], [19] and [20]. In patients with VPA intoxication, hemofiltration or hemoperfusion should be considered in cases of renal insufficiency, severe metabolic disorders, continuous disorder of consciousness and seizures, and refractory hypotension [21] and [22]. Also Spiller et al. [23] suggested that hemoperfusion or hemofiltration could be an additional treatment option in patients with serum VPA levels

>850 mg/L. In our study, out of 26 VPA-intoxicated BYL719 price patients, 7 patients had undergone hemoperfusion. Although the number of reported cases of VPA intoxication is limited, treatment with carnitine is recommended for such cases to prevent acute hepatic insufficiency and metabolic abnormalities, as well as to correct the disorders of consciousness [24] and [25]. The Pediatric Neurology Advisory Committee and some textbooks strongly recommend carnitine treatment (50-100 mg/kg/day) in case of VPA overdose and hepatic toxicity [26], [27] and [28]. However, there is no

strong evidence that carnitine removes the toxicity (evidence level C) [29]. In our study, 7 cases received carnitine treatment, and there were no side-effects or allergic reactions induced by carnitine. Although there is no association between the plasma VPA concentrations and the severity of central nervous system toxicity, oral intake of VPA click here at a dose of over 200 mg/kg or plasma concentration of VPA over 180 mg/L lead to severe central nervous system depression [30] and [31]. In our study, we did not find a significant association or a significant correlation between GCS score and the VPA level, even in the patient group with serum VPA levels of over 125 mg/L. Since pancreatitis, hyperammoniemia, and metabolic and hematological disorders can appear in VPA intoxications, and since high levels of lactate and ammonia are associated with cerebral edema and disorders of consciousness, we assessed the association between the serum VPA level and the serum lactate and ammonia levels [32].

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