At the 1000 hPa level there is a distinct land breeze at 00 UTC a

At the 1000 hPa level there is a distinct land breeze at 00 UTC and a sea breeze at 12 UTC on the Baltic Sea and also on the larger lakes (Ladoga and Vänern). At 950 hPa the breeze effect is still weakly present, but already at 900 hPa the breeze effects are no longer apparent. There are three mechanisms that can change the humidity content in the atmosphere: 1) large-scale (synoptic) changes of the air mass; 2) evaporation and condensation within the air mass; and 3) local wind-driven advection. The large-scale changes in the synoptic situation do not follow a diurnal pattern, as they are caused by large-scale changes of the air mass and can be compensated

for by averaging over long time periods. Nonetheless, air mass changes affect PW behaviour much more than other inducers, so studies of PW diurnal variability using intensive but short measuring periods (for example, Wu et al., 2003 and Bastin selleck products et al., 2007) are likely to be affected by the air mass changes. The other two mechanisms are both related to the diurnal cycle of solar radiation (Wu et al. 2003). The diurnal cycle

of solar radiation drives the humidity cycle via the temperature cycle. Diurnal warming intensifies evaporation and increases humidity. Also, warmer air can contain more U0126 nmr moisture. The diurnal cycle of solar radiation also generates sea/land breezes as result of the differential warming of land and water. During daytime in summer, the water is colder than the land and the sea breeze carries moisture inland. During the night in summer, the water is warmer than the air and the land breeze carries air from land to water. After sunrise, surface warming above the land triggers convective turbulence and vertical mixing of air. The extent of the mixed layer increases with the intensity of the incident solar radiation and is also driven by the type of underlying surface and the pattern of its albedo. Convective

turbulence carries moisture from the lower layers upwards and upper drier air downwards, favouring evaporation from the surface. At night (00 UTC) the atmosphere cools off below 900 hPa; above that level the change Dapagliflozin in temperature is mostly insignificant. As there is less evaporation and turbulent mixing, the specific humidity also decreases in the whole profile, compared to the situation 6 hours earlier, causing the decrease in PW. In the morning (06 UTC) the temperature decreases in the entire column. The specific humidity increases below 950 hPa, and this is often accompanied by radiative fog (ground fog) and dew, which entrains water vapour and reduces column humidity, i.e. PW. Because of the downward transport of water vapour, the specific humidity decreases above 950 hPa. By noon (12 UTC) the temperature has increased in the whole profile, especially below 950 hPa. The specific humidity increases above 950 hPa, but decreases below that. This can be explained by the upward convective transport of humidity in the first 1 km layer.

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