falciparum-infected erythrocytes (Pf-IRBC) in blood vessels of th

falciparum-infected erythrocytes (Pf-IRBC) in blood vessels of the CNS. MIP-3α/CCL20 will stimulate

the migration, homing and maturation of leucocytes, and CCL20 together with CXCL1, CXCL2, IL-6 and IL-8 increased more than 100-fold in blood–brain barrier endothelial cells during Pf-IRBC contact, which suggests its participation in cellular defence during Pf-IRBC sequestration [60]. Astrocytes which line parenchymal blood vessels will respond in a pathogen-specific way to infection and release MIP-3α/CCL20 and CXCL16 [61]; both chemokines will promote Th1-type responses by enhancing IFN-γ and TNF-α release, and CXCL16 may attract neutrophil granulocytes across the blood–brain barrier into the cerebrospinal

fluid [62,63]. Both CCL20 and CXCL16 were elevated substantially in PF-01367338 cost SM and MM infants; CCL20 correlated positively with parasite densities, and therefore CCL20 and CXCL16 should be investigated further as to what extent they contribute to the manifestation of CM. The chemokines 6Ckine/CCL21 and CCL19 are both involved in T lymphocyte migration into see more CNS tissues during immune surveillance and inflammation [64–66], and expression of their common receptor CCR4 is required for protective immune responses during acute T. gondii infection [67,68]. The abrogation of CCL21 function in mice with L. major infection resulted in failure to clear parasites from infected skin [68]. In the present work, 6Ckine/CCL21 plasma levels were similar in NEG, MM and SM infants,

suggesting that with malaria progression or regression 6Ckine/CCL21, which may promote immune surveillance against intracellular parasite in CNS tissues, has not been activated or remained suppressed. In summary, proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine and chemokines were generated in infants during progression and regression of acute malaria tropica. Proinflammatory type cytokines IL-31 and IL-33 were strongly enhanced, while regulatory IL-27 was lowered with severe malaria. Similarly, the chemokines CCL20 and CXCL16 which promote leucocyte migration into brain parenchyma increased while CCL21, which second mediates immune surveillance in CNS tissues, remained unchanged. These cytokine and chemokine production profiles and their dynamics could be considered for evaluating the progression or regression of malarial disease. We kindly thank all parents who participated in the present work. For their competent assistance we thank the medical assistants and nurses at the Paediatric Ward at the Centre Hospitalier Regional (CHR) in Sokodé in Togo. The authors declare that no conflict of interest exists.

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