falciparum$14,636 [95% CI $5,360–23,912], and for unspecified species $16,008 [95% CI $10,365–21,652]. CNMC had a CI of nine malaria cases per
10,000 patients [95% CI 6.7–11.3], 7.6 times greater [95% CI 5.8–10.0, p < 0.0001] than that for all PHIS hospitals (1.2 per 10,000 patients [95% CI 1.0–1.3]). CNMC saw a total of 60 inpatients (19.6% of total PHIS cases) with a primary diagnosis of malaria, an average of 12 admissions per year, out of an average of 13,290 inpatients per year over the study period, or 15 per year if adjusted for the partial reporting of 2008. CNMC accounted for 21% selleck chemicals llc ($1,152,379) of charges in the PHIS dataset. Mean charges were slightly higher than those for all PHIS hospitals, at $19,206 [95% CI $10,335–28,077]; however, multivariate analysis showed no significant difference in individual per patient hospital charges between CNMC and the other PHIS hospitals in aggregate. The 39 hospitals reporting cases represent most metropolitan areas of the United States and were sorted by U.S. Census Bureau region variable [Northeast, South, North Central (Midwest), West] as designated by PHIS. The CI, APR-DRG severity index ratios, and find more mean hospital charges are summarized in Table 3. The South region experienced the highest burden [1.8 per 10,000 patients, 95% CI (1.5–2.0)] and the West the lowest
[0.6 per 10,000; 95% CI (0.4–0.8)] of all four regions. The CI for the South region was 1.5 times greater (95% CI 1.3–1.9) than for all PHIS hospitals and 3.2 times greater (95% CI 2.2–4.7) than the West. In the Northeast, South, and North Central
regions, the majority of cases were Montelukast Sodium of black race. Only in the West region did cases of all other races outnumber those of black race, 56% to 44%. The breakdown of malaria types was consistent between all regions, with the majority of cases having P. falciparum. In all four regions, the majority of cases were aged 9 years or younger and males outnumbered females. Mean hospital charges ranged from $10,711 in the West to $20,486 in the South. The high burden of pediatric malaria cases in the Washington, DC region compared to similar pediatric medical centers around the country reflects its large population of African immigrants and demonstrates that improving the delivery and acceptance of preventive travel health care in this population is needed. The majority of patients in this series were long-term US residents who did not utilize recommended prevention methods. Empirical self-treatment by parents, both abroad and in the United States, with ineffective medications was common. GIS mapping of CNMC malaria cases demonstrates a correlation between numbers of cases and areas with large populations of individuals of sub-Saharan African ethnicity. This region extends in a narrow band along the northeastern border of Washington, DC and Maryland.