For competitive analysis, the indicated strains were mixed togeth

For competitive analysis, the indicated strains were mixed together in equal amounts and used to inoculate lotus plants as described previously (D′Antuono et al., 2005). The proportion of each strain in the mixture was determined as described previously (Sánchez et al., 2009). Statistical analyses were carried out using anova and the chi-square test. Lotus seeds were surface-sterilized and pregerminated. Nodulation was observed by the agar slant method (Vincent, 1970). Three-day-old

seedlings were placed into column tubes containing agar B&D ¼ (Broughton & Dilworth, 1971) (two plants per tube), inoculated with M. loti strains at an OD of 0.6 (100 μL), and observed daily for nodule number. Results are the average of three experiments. Statistical analysis was carried out by anova. It has been proposed that

the signal to be secreted by T3SS resides in the amino acid sequence of the N-terminal region of T3SS effectors (summarized in Gosh, 2004). Selleck Caspase inhibitor Experiments using fusion of this region to a reporter protein have been previously carried out to demonstrate the N-terminal region capacity to direct protein secretion through T3SS (Rüssmann et al., 2002; Lorio et al., 2004). Thus, we fused a FLAG epitope at the C-terminus of the truncated proteins by cloning the respective N-terminal regions into LDK378 datasheet the vector pBAD24 3xFLAG (Fig. S1) (Guzman et al., 1995; Spano et al., 2008). To investigate protein secretion through T3SS, we introduced translational constructions into M. loti MAFF303099 already containing pMP2112, which constitutively expresses nodD of Rhizobium leguminosarum. Because the flavonoid that specifically induces the expression of M. loti promoters containing the nod box is unknown, we used this heterologous system (as proposed by López-Lara et al., 1995) to induce flavonoid-controlled genes in MAFF303099 with naringenin. We have previously

described that the N-terminal regions of mlr6361 and mlr6358 are able to direct the secretion of a reporter peptide through the T3SS of M. loti (Sánchez et al., 2009). As strains carrying plasmid-borne translational fusions of mlr6316 and mlr6331 were growth defective, we decided to analyze the this website secretion of the N-terminal translational fusions of mlr6316 and mlr6331 as single copies integrated into the M. loti MAFF303099 chromosome (MAFF6316SRpMP2112 and MAFF6331SRpMP2112). We also assayed the mlr6358 (MAFF6358SRpMP2112) and mlr6361 (MAFF6361SRpMP2112) secretion capacity. When the assay was carried out in the presence of naringenin, secretion of the fused protein into the supernatant was observed in small amounts (data not shown). It has been previously described for pathogenic animal bacteria (Boyd et al., 2000; Lee et al., 2001; Deng et al., 2005), that secretion of effectors proteins by T3SS could be induced by lowering the calcium concentration of the culture medium. To test whether a similar culture condition could trigger secretion in M.

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