Growing evidence indicates that increased responsiveness

Growing evidence indicates that increased responsiveness

of innate immune cells such as macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils drives inflammation in SpA. The altered innate immune response may be related to nonantigen-presenting functions of HLA-B27, including the induction of an unfolded protein response, and can be find more triggered by bacterial and mechanical stress. Innate immune cells appear to be the main producers of both pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor, IL-1, IL-23, IL-17) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in SpA.


The predominance of myeloid above lymphoid alterations suggests an autoinflammatory rather than autoimmune origin of inflammation in SpA. Therefore, targeting innate cells or their inflammatory mediators may be more effective than T-cell or B-cell-directed therapies.”
“Purpose of review

There is a major JNJ-26481585 concentration delay of several years between first symptoms and making a diagnosis in patients with axial

spondyloarthritis. A strategy for earlier diagnosis is urgently needed, for which efficient referral parameters applicable in primary care are an important part. Published studies on referral programs are reviewed and their relevance for daily clinical practice is discussed.


Several referral investigations have been performed in several countries using the symptom of ‘inflammatory back pain’ (IBP) alone or in combination with other referral parameters. All studies performed resulted in a good and acceptable percentage of an axial SpA diagnosis in between 29 and 58%. A set of rather simple parameters (IBP and/or HLA-B27 positivity and/or sacroiliitis on imaging) ISRIB molecular weight performed better than IBP alone and is easier to use than more complicated referral strategies.


Referral strategies to screen for axial SpA patients in primary care are available, are effective and should be applied more regularly.”
“AimPre-eclampsia (PE) is a complex

disorder of pregnancy with unknown etiology. FAS-mediated apoptosis is assumed to prevent the development of PE; therefore FAS and FASLigand may be represented as candidate genes involved in PE pathogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the relation between FAS LigandA-670G (rs1800682) and FAS LigandC-844T (rs763110) gene polymorphisms with PE in southeast Iran.

MethodsOne hundred and twenty-seven unrelated women with PE and 139 healthy control subjects were genotyped for the FASA-670G and FAS LigandC-844T polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

ResultsThe AA, AG and GG genotype frequency of the FASA-670G polymorphism were 21.3%, 53.5% and 25.2% in pre-eclamptic women and 46.0%, 41.5% and 11.5% in controls and were statistically different (P=0.0001). The risk of PE was 2.7- and 4.7-fold higher in pregnant women with AG and GG genotypes respectively.

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