In its “summary” action to initiate the regulatory adoption process and environmental reviews required under CEQA, the Commission vote was unanimous for the Central Coast Study Region, split 3–2 in the North Central Coast and South Coast Study Regions, and split 4–1
RGFP966 concentration in the North Coast Study Region. These formal actions by the Commission built on earlier decisions by RSGs and the BRTF, reflecting important policy implementation choices at each stage (Table 6). Legal challenges to the public–private structure of the Initiative and provision of funding from private charitable foundations began during the first study region. Every study region also encountered challenges other than legal actions in sorting out relationships with other public policies and among uses of marine resources. For example, a common issue among fishermen was the relationship of MPAs to spatially based fishery management regulations, such as the Cowcod Conservation Areas or Rockfish Conservation Areas; relationships with tribal uses became increasingly important as the Initiative progressed (Fox et al., 2013c). Consistent gubernatorial support for creating an improved network of MPAs was important, especially regarding final action by the Commission (Fox et al., 2013a).
As an example of the political dynamics, the California State Senate refused to consider and bring to confirmation vote Romidepsin chemical structure one Governor’s appointee to the Commission who voted to create MPAs in the North Central Coast shortly after appointment by the Governor but before Senate confirmation. That individual had previously served on the BRTF. As in any public policy implementation process of consequence, creating a substantial network of MPAs did not occur easily once legislation was enacted. The Initiative played a key role in the third attempt to implement the MLPA and establish the first statewide network of MPAs in the U.S. Key contributors to the success of this innovative planning process included a strong legal mandate, adequate funding
and capacity provided by the public–private partnership, robust stakeholder engagement, strong science guidance, transparent processes, effective leadership by Nintedanib solubility dmso the volunteer BRTF and strong political support. Governmental decision making bodies sometimes seek to avoid decisions or make the minimal changes possible from the status quo, especially for issues characterized by high conflict, technical complexity or uncertainty. Because of the extensive analytic work on proposals and the extended, transparent process of the Initiative, requests by any disaffected parties that a decision should be deferred by the Commission had to overcome a compelling case for action that emerged in each region. The Initiative was successful in developing alternative MPA proposals that supported Commission actions to substantially increase the number, size, and effectiveness of MPAs in California, including no take MPAs.