It has been shown that seaweeds, like higher plants, respond to a

It has been shown that seaweeds, like higher plants, respond to an increased activity of antioxidative enzymes when exposed to stress. However, earlier investigations have shown that P. cinnamomea also compensates for stress due to UV radiation by increasing polyamine (PA) levels, especially bound-soluble and bound-insoluble PAs. The

PA precursor putrescine (PUT) can be synthesized via two enzymatic pathways: arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Both of these enzymes showed increased activity in P. cinnamomea under UV stress. In higher plants, ADC is the enzyme responsible for increased PA levels during stress exposure, while ODC is correlated with cell division and reproduction. However, there are contrary findings in the literature. Using two irreversible inhibitors, we identified the enzyme most likely responsible Selleckchem BGJ398 for increased PUT synthesis and therefore increased stress tolerance in P. cinnamomea. Our results show that changes in the PA synthesis pathway in P. cinnamomea under UV stress are based on an increased activity of ADC. When either inhibitor was added, lipid hydroperoxide levels increased even under photosynthetically active check details radiation, suggesting that PAs are involved in protection mechanisms under normal light conditions as well. We also show that under optimum or low-stress conditions, ODC activity is correlated

with PUT synthesis. “
“W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State

University, Hickory Corners, Michigan, USA Currently, very few studies address the relationship between diversity and biomass/lipid production in primary producer communities for biofuel production. Basic studies on the growth of microalgal communities, however, provide evidence of a positive relationship between diversity and biomass production. Recent studies have also shown 上海皓元 that positive diversity–productivity relationships are related to an increase in the efficiency of light use by diverse microalgal communities. Here, we hypothesize that there is a relationship between diversity, light use, and microalgal lipid production in phytoplankton communities. Microalgae from all major freshwater algal groups were cultivated in treatments that differed in species richness and functional group richness. Polycultures with high functional group richness showed more efficient light use and higher algal lipid content with increasing species richness. There was a clear correlation between light use and lipid production in functionally diverse communities. Hence, a powerful and cost-effective way to improve biofuel production might be accomplished by incorporating diversity related, resource-use-dynamics into algal biomass production. “
“Macroalgae are important primary producers in many subtidal habitats, yet little information exists on the temporal and spatial dynamics of net primary production (NPP) by entire subtidal assemblages.

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