Lastly, the benefits of dual-task practice were only examined in

Lastly, the benefits of dual-task practice were only examined in young healthy adults. It remains to be determined whether such effect would be generalised to individuals known to have limited attentional resources, such as elderly individuals and patients with brain damage. In conclusion, our data support the role of dPM in mediating the dual-task practice benefit in which a secondary choice RT task enhanced learning of a primary finger sequence task. This study provides preliminary evidence that dPM is an important node of the planning circuitry that is differentially engaged under dual-task practice. The authors declare that they do not have any competing interests. We thank Department of Radiology

at Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA, for providing structural MRI brain scan. We would like to thank Dr. Carolee Winstein for the insightful discussion during designing phase of this study. We acknowledge Mr. Todd D Combs’s assistance in experimental set-up and data collection. Abbreviations B block dPM dorsal premotor cortex FDI first dorsal interosseous M1 primary motor cortex MEP motor evoked potential MRI magnetic resonance imaging R retention test RMT resting motor threshold RT reaction time rTMS repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation “
“Human infants rapidly develop their auditory perceptual abilities and acquire culture-specific knowledge

in speech and music Entinostat chemical structure in the second 6 months of life. In the adult brain, neural rhythm around 10 Hz in the temporal lobes is thought to reflect sound analysis and subsequent cognitive processes such as memory and attention. To study when and how such rhythm emerges in infancy, we examined electroencephaolgram (EEG) recordings in

infants 4 and 12 months of age during sound stimulation and silence. In the 4-month-olds, the amplitudes of narrowly tuned 4-Hz brain rhythm, recorded from bilateral temporal electrodes, were modulated Adenylyl cyclase by sound stimuli. In the 12-month-olds, the sound-induced modulation occurred at faster 6-Hz rhythm at temporofrontal locations. The brain rhythms in the older infants consisted of more complex components, as even evident in individual data. These findings suggest that auditory-specific rhythmic neural activity, which is already established before 6 months of age, involves more speed-efficient long-range neural networks by the age of 12 months when long-term memory for native phoneme representation and for musical rhythmic features is formed. We suggest that maturation of distinct rhythmic components occurs in parallel, and that sensory-specific functions bound to particular thalamo-cortical networks are transferred to newly developed higher-order networks step by step until adult hierarchical neural oscillatory mechanisms are achieved across the whole brain. “
“The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to play opposing roles in drug-seeking behaviour.

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