“Memory system circuitry may regulate how cues associated Pexidartinib with cocaine are extinguished, and understanding neurosubstrates of extinction may lead to the development of improved treatment strategies for cocaine addiction. Sites
within the hippocampus and amygdala were investigated for their role in regulating cocaine cue extinction learning. Initially, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under a second-order reinforcement schedule (cocaine and cocaine cues present) followed by a 2-week abstinence period. Using lidocaine, rats next underwent bilateral inactivation of the dorsal subiculum (dSUB) or rostral basolateral amygdala (rBLA), asymmetric inactivation of the dSUB and rBLA, unilateral inactivation of the dSUB or rBLA, or ipsilateral inactivation of the dSUB and rBLA prior to cocaine
cue extinction training sessions (only cocaine cues present) on two consecutive days. Relative to vehicle, bilateral and asymmetric lidocaine treatments in the dSUB and rBLA slowed cocaine cue extinction learning. Specifically, vehicle-treated rats exhibited a significantly larger difference in responding from Erastin molecular weight Day 1 to Day 2 of extinction training than lidocaine-treated rats. In comparison, unilateral or ipsilateral lidocaine treatments in the dSUB and rBLA did not slow cocaine cue extinction learning. Rats treated with lidocaine and vehicle exhibited a similar difference in responding from Day 1 to Day 2 of extinction training. These results indicate that sites within the hippocampus and amygdala need to be functionally active simultaneously in at least one brain hemisphere for acquisition of cocaine cue extinction learning. These results further suggest that a serial circuit within each hemisphere mediates acquisition of cocaine cue extinction learning. “
“Giant cells of the cochlear nucleus are thought to integrate multimodal Carbohydrate sensory inputs and participate in monaural sound
source localization. Our aim was to explore the significance of a hyperpolarization-activated current in determining the activity of giant neurones in slices prepared from 10 to 14-day-old rats. When subjected to hyperpolarizing stimuli, giant cells produced a 4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino) pyridinium chloride (ZD7288)-sensitive inward current with a reversal potential and half-activation voltage of –36 and –88 mV, respectively. Consequently, the current was identified as the hyperpolarization-activated non-specific cationic current (Ih). At the resting membrane potential, 3.5% of the maximum Ih conductance was available. Immunohistochemistry experiments suggested that hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated, cation non-selective (HCN)1, HCN2, and HCN4 subunits contribute to the assembly of the functional channels. Inhibition of Ih hyperpolarized the membrane by 6 mV and impeded spontaneous firing.