Moreover, the AGE content in bone is higher in patients with hip fracture than in subjects without fractures . In a population study, Shiraki et al. demonstrated that a high level of urinary pentosidine, a major AGE in vivo, was an independent risk factor
for osteoporotic vertebral fractures in elderly women . Schwartz et al. reported that urinary pentosidine content www.selleckchem.com/products/GDC-0449.html was associated with increased fracture incidence in older adults with diabetes . The subjects of these studies were older adults who had an increased risk of life-related diseases, such as diabetes and osteoporosis. However, AGEs may accumulate before the onset of diabetes and even at a younger age. In non-diabetic Japanese subjects, serum AGE levels were independently correlated with insulin resistance, which may gradually cause diabetes . Pentosidine content in bone or serum increased with advancing age . Given that bone strength commonly peaks when a person is in
his/her 20s and then gradually declines see more with advancing age, AGE accumulation may be associated with bone strength, if not with fractures, preclinically. Moreover, in men, the lifetime risk of any osteoporotic fracture has been assessed as being within the range 13–22% , so osteoporosis is no longer a problem only for women and the elderly. Greater AGE accumulation may potentially be related to poorer bone strength in apparently healthy adult men. Thus, in this study, we examined the association between skin autofluorescence (AF), which is associated with skin accumulation of AGEs, including pentosidine , and quantitative ultrasound examination of calcaneal bone, which correlates with mechanical properties of the bone and may have a predictive value for pentoxifylline hip fractures in men , among apparently healthy adult men. We hypothesized that skin AF would have a negative association with quantitative ultrasound among adult men. Methods Study participants The study participants consisted of adult male employees enrolled in a prospective study of risk factors for lifestyle-related illnesses or health status in Japan. Participants received annual
health examinations including anthropometric SU5402 cost measurements, hematological examinations, and, in 2009, an additional assessment including the accumulation of AGEs in skin and quantitative ultrasound examination of calcaneal bone. This study was carried out during the first week (from Monday to Friday) of August. The details of this study have been described elsewhere [18, 19]. The sample selection process is described in Fig. 1. In 2009, 1,263 participants had undergone health examinations for lifestyle-related illnesses. Of these, 1,215 (933 men) participated in our survey and provided their informed consent for data analysis (response rate, 96.2%). Those who underwent skin AF measurement were randomly selected (n = 518).