On the other hand, with one exception, all identified mutations w

On the other hand, with one exception, all identified mutations were heterozygous in fluconazole-susceptible isolates; the finding supports the contention that loss of heterozygosity NCT-501 datasheet in a diploid species such as C. albicans is a step in the development of the azole-resistant phenotype [3, 20, 29]. It is also possible that many ERG11 polymorphisms whilst not conferring resistance per se, may play a role in increasing the level of resistance [12, 21]. Conversely, the absence of substitutions G307S, G448E, G464S, Y132H, S405F and R467K, in susceptible GM6001 manufacturer isolates strongly suggests they have

contributed to the resistant phenotype. This hypothesis can be tested by site-directed mutagenesis and expression studies of specific ERG11 alleles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using this approach, Sanglard and co-workers demonstrated that the substitutions G464S, Y132H, S405F and R467K were linked to azole resistance among their collection of isolates [12]; similar studies

are warranted to determine if the new substitution G450V is associated Ferrostatin-1 with resistance. Testing matched, susceptible and resistant, isolates from the same patient for ERG11 mutations may also assist in determining if particular mutations impact on azole resistance; unfortunately, matched isolates were not available in the present study. In general, neither the type or number of mutations in isolates sequentially obtained from the same patient correlated with azole MICs (Table 2), emphasising the need to assess additional genes

to understand the contribution of each to the resistance phenotype. As such, methods that detect polymorphisms are well-placed to screen large numbers of isolates from different sources for mutations and to guide functional testing of these isolates for resistance. This study demonstrates a new application of a simple RCA-based technique for the rapid and accurate detection of SNPs in the ERG11 gene as potential markers of resistance and for the tracking of resistant strains. Other sequencing-independent Lck methods include conventional real time PCR and/or other probe-based technologies eg. molecular beacons or TaqMan probes [30, 31]. Results using conventional real time PCR are well-known to be highly-dependent on the physical characteristics of the platform. Molecular beacons and TaqMan probe methods are conveniently available in the form of commercial kits. Although able to detect SNPs with good sensitivity [30, 31], strict attention to the Tm of the probes is required to ensure adequate specificity. The RCA-based method described here offers several advantages over other amplification techniques in that ligation of the probe ends by DNA ligase requires perfectly-matched target-probe complexes preventing nonspecific amplification generated by conventional PCR and resulting in very high specificity. It is also rapid (2 h compared to 1–2 days for DNA sequencing following DNA extraction).

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