Our culture and field observations indicate that there is a previ

Our culture and field observations indicate that there is a previously unrecognized stage in the life cycle of P. antarctica G. Karst. This stage comprises nonmotile cells that http://www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD2281(Olaparib).html range in size from ∼4.2 to 9.8 μm in diameter and form aggregates in which interstitial spaces between cells are small or absent. The aggregates (hereafter called attached aggregates, AAs) adhere to available surfaces. In field samples, small AAs, surrounded by a colony skin, adopt an epiphytic lifestyle and adhere in most cases to setae or spines of diatoms. These AAs, either directly or via other life stages, produce the colonial life stage. Culture studies indicate that bloom-forming, colonial stages release flagellates (microzoospores)

that fuse and form AAs, which can proliferate on the bottom of culture vessels and can eventually reform free-floating colonies. We propose that these AAs are a new stage in the

life cycle of P. antarctica, which we believe to be the zygote, thus documenting sexual reproduction in this species for the first time. “
“Chroococcidiopsis Geitler (Geitler 1933) is a genus of cyanobacteria containing desiccation and radiation resistant strains. Members of the genus live in habitats ranging from hot and cold deserts to fresh and saltwater environments. Morphology and cell division pattern have historically been used to define the genus. To better understand the evolution and ability of the Chroococcidiopsis genus to survive Rucaparib mouse in diverse environments we investigated how salt tolerance varies among 15 strains previously isolated from different locations, and if salt tolerant strains are monophyletic to those isolated from freshwater and land environments. Four markers were sequenced from these 15 strains, the 16S rRNA, rbcL, desC1, and gltX

genes. Phylogenetic trees were generated which identified a distinct clade of salt-tolerant strains. This study demonstrates that the genus is learn more polyphyletic based on saltwater and freshwater phenotypes. To understand the resistance to salt in more details, the strains were grown on a range of sea salt concentrations which demonstrated that the freshwater strains were salt-intolerant whilst the saltwater strains required salt for growth. This study shows an increased resolution of the phylogeny of Chroococcidiopsis and provides further evidence that the genus is polyphyletic and should be reclassified to improve clarity in the literature. “
“As the process of ocean acidification alters seawater carbon chemistry, physiological processes such as skeletal accretion are expected to become more difficult for calcifying organisms. The crustose coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) form an important guild of calcifying primary producers in the temperate Northeast Pacific. The morphology of important ecological traits, namely, skeletal density and thallus thickness near the growing edge, was evaluated in Pseudolithophyllum muricatum (Foslie) Steneck & R.T.

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