Overexpression of SR or secretin administration might open new av

Overexpression of SR or secretin administration might open new avenues for the treatment of ductopenic liver diseases. “
“Obesity is associated with many severe chronic diseases

and deciphering its development Selleckchem Lapatinib and molecular mechanisms is necessary for promoting treatment. Previous studies have revealed that mitochondrial content is down-regulated in obesity, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and proposed that NAFLD and diabetes are mitochondrial diseases. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. In this study, we discovered that resistin down-regulated the content and activities of mitochondria, enhanced hepatic steatosis, and induced insulin resistance (IR)

in mice. The time course indicated that the change in mitochondrial content was before the change in fat accumulation and development of insulin resistance. When the mitochondrial content was maintained, resistin did not stimulate hepatic fat accumulation. The present mutation study found that the residue Thr464 of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B was essential for regulating mitochondria. A proximity ligation assay revealed that resistin inactivated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and diminished the mitochondrial see more content by promoting the interaction of p65 and PGC-1α. Signaling-transduction analysis demonstrated that resistin down-regulated mitochondria by a novel protein kinase C/protein kinase G/p65/PGC-1α-signaling pathway. Conclusion: Resistin induces hepatic steatosis through diminishing mitochondrial content. This reveals a novel pathway for mitochondrial regulation, and suggests that the maintenance of normal mitochondrial content could be a new strategy for treatment of obesity-associated diseases. (HEPATOLOGY 2013) Obesity is a global health

problem and is associated with many chronic diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD),1 cardiovascular diseases (CVD),2 type 2 diabetes,3 selleck hypertension,4 and certain cancers.5 Although many related genes and signaling pathways have been revealed, an understanding of the development of obesity remains limited. As a cellular energy source, mitochondria are involved in the regulation of fatty acid (FA) oxidation (FAO) and apoptosis. Accumulated evidence indicates that mitochondrial content is down-regulated in obesity,6 diabetes,7 and NAFLD.8, 9 Many antidiabetic therapies have been shown to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis.10, 11 Although how and why these mechanisms are regulated remains unclear, they give support to the idea that obesity-associated diseases are significantly inversely related to mitochondrial status. Resistin was first described in 2001 and is secreted from adipose tissue12 and was first thought to be related to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and therefore named resistin.

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