Participants of NHANES completed a comprehensive questionnaire as

Participants of NHANES completed a comprehensive questionnaire assessing dietary behaviors, health history, socioeconomic status, and demographic information at NHANES Mobile Examination Centers

and in participant’s homes. The NCHS Research Ethics Review Board reviewed and approved all study protocols for NHANES 2009 to 2010. Owing to the nature of the analysis (secondary data analysis) and the lack of personal identifiers, this study was exempted by the University of Minnesota Institutional Review Board. Trained interviewers conducted in-person 24-hour dietary recalls using the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Automated Multiple-Pass Method 5-step data collection [25]. Dietary data included detailed descriptions of all food and quantities eaten. Detailed descriptions of the dietary interview methods are provided in the NHANES Dietary Interviewer’s Training Manual, which includes pictures of the Computer-Assisted PI3K inhibitor Selleckchem TGF beta inhibitor Dietary Interview system screens, measurement guides, and charts used to collect dietary information [25]. Two days of dietary intake were collected from participants. Dietary intake data for the first day were collected through in-person interview

and used for analysis in this study. Participants with complete and reliable dietary data were included, as determined by the NCHS. US Department of Agriculture’s Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies was used to code and estimate the nutrient content of reported Levetiracetam food and beverages [26]. The MyPyramid Equivalents Database for USDA Survey Food Codes, version 2.0A, was used in NHANES 2009 to 2010 to calculate WG intake [27]. A Center

for Nutrition Policy and Promotion addendum to MyPyramid Equivalents Database 2.0A was used to estimate WG intake from 117 new food codes from NHANES 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2008 [28]. Whole grain values were imputed for 96 new food codes from NHANES 2009 to 2010 based on the reported content of similar foods. The MyPyramid Equivalents Database is currently the only database available that provides quantified measures of WG foods with separate tables based on the old and new (without bran) definitions for WG. My Pyramid Equivalents food data files contain the number of servings (oz eq) per 100 g of food for 32 MyPyramid food groups, 3 of which are WG, non-WG, and total grain. Examples of WG food servings contained within the database include 1 slice of 100% WG bread, 1 cup of 100% WG cereal, or one-half cup of 100% WG hot cereal, cooked pasta, rice, or other grain such as bulgur, oatmeal, and whole cornmeal. Total dietary fiber is a reported variable in NHANES based on values reported in USDA’s Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies. The NHANES 2009 to 2010 was used in this secondary analysis to examine the relationship between WG and total dietary fiber intake among children and adolescents (2-18 years of age; n = 3124) and adults (≥19 years of age; n = 5918).

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