“Prediction errors are central to modern learning theories. While brain regions contributing to reward prediction errors have been uncovered, the sources of aversive prediction errors remain largely unknown. Here we used probabilistic and deterministic reinforcement procedures, followed by extinction, to examine the contribution of the dorsal raphe nucleus to negative, aversive prediction errors in Pavlovian fear. Rats with dorsal raphe lesions were able to acquire fear and reduce fear to a non-reinforced deterministic cue. However, dorsal raphe lesions impaired the reduction of fear to a probabilistic cue and fear extinction to a deterministic cue, both of which involve the use
of negative prediction errors. The results point to an integral role for the dorsal raphe nucleus in negative prediction
error signaling in Pavlovian fear. “
“This proof-of-concept, double-blind study was designed to determine the effects of transcranial Epigenetics inhibitor direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the ‘cost’ of performing a secondary cognitive task on gait and postural control in healthy young adults. Twenty adults aged 22 ± 2 years completed two separate double-blind visits in which gait and postural control were assessed immediately before and after a 20 min session of either real or sham tDCS (1.5 mA) targeting selleck chemical the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Gait speed and stride duration variability, along with standing postural sway speed and area, were recorded under normal conditions and while simultaneously performing a serial-subtraction cognitive task. The dual task cost was calculated as the percent change in HDAC inhibitor each outcome from normal to dual task conditions. tDCS was well tolerated by all subjects. Stimulation did not alter gait or postural control under normal conditions. As compared with sham stimulation, real tDCS led to increased gait speed (P = 0.006), as well as decreased standing postural sway speed (P = 0.01) and area (P = 0.01), when performing the serial-subtraction task. Real tDCS also diminished (P < 0.01) the dual task cost on each of these outcomes. No effects of tDCS were observed
for stride duration variability. A single session of tDCS targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improved the ability to adapt gait and postural control to a concurrent cognitive task and reduced the cost normally associated with such dual tasking. These results highlight the involvement of cortical brain networks in gait and postural control, and implicate the modulation of prefrontal cortical excitability as a potential therapeutic intervention. “
“We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine whether increasingly complex forms constituted from the same elements (lines) activate visual cortex with the same or different latencies. Twenty right-handed healthy adult volunteers viewed two different forms, lines and rhomboids, representing two levels of complexity.