Statistical analysis was first carried out as a descriptive evalu

Statistical analysis was first carried out as a descriptive evaluation of cPDR (%) and the clinical characteristics of the different patient groups. All data are presented as mean±standard error of the mean (SEM) unless otherwise specified. The significance of a difference between

two groups was tested using independent samples t-tests and the Wilcoxon test for paired samples. To identify a potential relationship between cPDR1.5h and biochemical variables (CD4 cell count, HIV viral load and ALT), body mass index (BMI) or the duration of treatment (modification), a Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed. The majority of laboratory parameters assessed in this study remained unchanged between breath tests 1 and 2 (Table 1). As expected, HIV viral load significantly

see more decreased in therapy-naïve patients and those on an STI after (re)initiation of cART (P<0.001 and P=0.043, respectively). selleck chemicals llc In turn, viral replication increased after cessation of ART in the STI group (P=0.011). CD4 cell count rose after initiation of ART in treatment-naïve patients (P<0.001) but remained stable in all other subgroups within the observed time interval. ALT levels decreased slightly after switching from ddI or d4T to NRTIs known to be relatively safe for mitochondria (tenofovir or abacavir; the MITOX group) but this decrease did not reach statistical significance (P=0.073). BMI remained stable between MeBTs 1 and 2 in all subgroups. Cumulative 13C-exhalation significantly increased in treatment-naïve

patients who started ART (cPDR1.5h 2.94±1.18 vs. 5.57±2.33, respectively; P<0.001) whereas patients remaining naïve at follow-up showed a further decrease in 13C-exhalation (cPDR1.5h 4.14±0.49 vs. 3.12±0.48, respectively; P=0.04) (Fig. 1). No changes in breath test performance were observed within the subgroups of individuals on ART who did not change their ART regimens (cPDR1.5h 5.85±0.27 vs. 5.79±0.3, respectively; P=0.31) or those who switched the PI/NNRTI component of their regimens (cPDR1.5h 4.63±1.85 vs. 5.36±1.74, respectively; P=0.34). In contrast, a switch of the NRTI backbone from ddI or d4T to tenofovir or abacavir (the MITOX group) was associated with a marked increase Sulfite dehydrogenase of cPDR1.5h at MeBT2 (3.57±2.37 vs. 6.09±2.46, respectively; P<0.001). Cessation of ART led to a significant decay of 13C-exhalation (cPDR1.5h 6.55±0.68 vs. 4.03±0.59, respectively; P=0.043), while breath performance improved within the STI group after reinitiation of antiviral medication (cPDR1.5h 2.91±1.17 vs. 5.59±0.97, respectively; P=0.008). Patients remaining on STI throughout the observation period had a slight decrease in cPDR1.5h (5.81±1.39 vs. 4.58±1.33, respectively) which did not reach statistical significance (P=0.068).

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