“The neuregulin1 (Nrg1) gene that is expressed in the dorsal root
ganglion (DRG) contains an EGF-like domain, which is known to be a direct ligand for ErbB3 and ErbB4. Multiple splice variants of the Nrg1 gene are broadly classified into 3 groups by structural features (type I, type 11 and type III) and their functions differ in various tissues. The Nrg1 gene has emerged as a key mediator of axon-Schwann cell interactions and as a regulator of Schwann cell development. The Nrg1 gene is indicated as a promising growth factor for neuronal development. However, the function of the Nrg1 in pain has not been clarified. We therefore, examined the expression profiles of each type of the Nrg1 transcript in the bilateral L4/L5 buy Osimertinib DRGs using L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model rats and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) model rats. Behavior tests have shown typical mechanical hyperalgesia in both the L5SNL model and the CFA model. In the L5SNL model, expression of the Nrg1 type I and type II were significantly increased in the L5 DRG. On the other hand, GS-9973 research buy the expression of the Nrg1 type III was decreased in the L5 DRG. We demonstrated that the expression changes of the Nrg1 isoforms in the ipsilateral DRGs were preferentially
related to the response to nerve injury. Our findings suggest that the aberrant expression may play an important role in nerve injury, regeneration and subsequent neuropathic pain on the L5SNL. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate reserved.”
“Background: Pentraxin (PTX)-3, a new candidate
marker for inflammation is expressed in a variety of cell types. Recently, we have shown that increase in PTX-3 level is associated with clinical outcome in incident CKD stage 5 patients at start of renal replacement therapy. However, no data are available on PTX-3 and its relationship with clinical outcome in prevalent dialysis patients.
Methods: We analyzed plasma PTX-3 concentrations in relation to comorbidities (Davies score), protein-energy wasting (PEW) and inflammation markers in 200 prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients, aged 64 +/- 14 years, who had been on HD treatment for a median period of 36 months. Survival (42 months) was analyzed in relation to PTX-3 levels (high PTX-3 tertile vs. low two tertiles).
Results: Plasma PTX-3 correlated positively with C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, and negatively with s-albumin and fetuin-A. Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and PEW had higher levels of PTX-3 than their counterparts and PTX-3 was associated with comorbidity score. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the high comorbidity score and PEW were the significant predictive variables of high PTX-3. In unadjusted analysis high PTX-3 was significantly associated with all-cause mortality.