The RS1 element

has been shown to be linked with the CTX

The RS1 element

has been shown to be linked with the CTX prophage of V. cholerae O1 El Tor, and O139 strains in general, selleck but the existence of free RS1 in V. cholerae is not uncommon. Similarly, all the tested strains yielded an amplicon of ∼2 kb for pTLC using primers tlcF and tlcR. A schematic genetic map displaying the chromosomal localization of CTX prophage among re-emerged V. cholerae O139 strains between 1996 and 2003 is shown in Fig. 3. Southern hybridization (detailed results not shown) showed that the O139 strains that re-emerged in 1996 had three copies of the CTX prophage, the first one with rstRET, followed by two rstRcalc. The 2003 strains had one CTX prophage with rstRET, followed by one intact copy of CTX prophage with rstRcalc and one truncated CTX prophage (ctxAB gene absent) with rstRcalc. Figure 3a and b shows a schematic diagram of the copy number of CTX prophages with the probable combination of rstR and ctxB alleles in the re-emerged O139 in 1996 and recent O139 of Kolkata. Selleckchem ZVADFMK The nucleotide sequence variations in the repressor region rstR formed the basis of the distinct alleles, namely CTXCl, CTXET and CTXcalc (Kimsey et al., 1998; Davis et al., 1999). Determination of rstR alleles revealed that V. cholerae O139 strains isolated during 1993–1995 possessed only the rstRET allele (Table 2). However, 65% of the

O139 strains isolated from 1996 to 2001 yielded an amplicon of the rstRET allele only and 35% of the strains yielded amplicons for both the rstRET and rstRcalc alleles. Strains isolated from 2002 to 2005 yielded amplicons for both rstRET and rstRcalc alleles. The lack of evidence on the nature of ctxB alleles among V. cholerae O139 strains and the emergence of V. cholerae O1 El Tor variants in Kolkata with classical ctxB formed the impetus to undertake this study. We found two new CT genotypes in V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from Kolkata apart from genotype 3, with different allelic combinations of rstR resulting in CTX prophage variants. Vibrio cholerae O139 isolated before 1996, i.e. from its first appearance in Kolkata during 1993–1995, was found to possess genotype

3, similar Rucaparib to the prototype El Tor strains. The new genotype 4, which had nucleotide C at positions 83, 115 and 203 in the ctxB gene, first appeared among re-emerged O139 strains during August 1996 in Kolkata after a hiatus of years. Interestingly, these V. cholerae O139 strains harboured a new rstR allele, rstRcalc (Kimsey et al., 1998; Davis et al., 1999). In addition, strains that yielded amplicons for both classical as well as El Tor ctxB during this period also possessed both types of rstR alleles, rstRET and rstRcalc. The nested PCR results showed that the new genotype of ctxB was present in a CTX prophage residing just adjacent to rtxA gene and possessing rstRcalc. One V. cholerae O139 strain isolated during 1998 possessed only one CTX prophage containing CT genotype 4 and rstRcalc.

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