The study includes patients within 8 h after symptom onset inelig

The study includes patients within 8 h after symptom onset ineligible for or with failed IV rtPA as a bridging therapy or thrombectomy as initial treatment. First results are expected in mid-2012. Immediate flow restoration is the principle goal of ischemic stroke therapy and is associated with better clinical outcome and reduced mortality. The introduction of mechanical approaches has expanded the time window for stroke treatment and broadened the

spectrum of stroke patients for treatment. The latest results of MT using stent-retrievers demonstrate high recanalization rates in conjunction with short recanalization times and a low-risk device-related severe adverse event. Furthermore, recent data show that the increased recanalization rate of MT improves clinical outcome. The future role Selleck KU-57788 of MT in acute stroke treatment is not clear yet. Considering the poor recanalization rate and clinical outcome of patients with proximal vessel occlusions and large thrombus burden (e.g. internal carotid artery occlusion), MT is likely to become a first-line HDAC inhibitor treatment. “
“Resection of tumors within or close to motor eloquent areas, particularly the precentral gyrus, is always a compromise between extent of resection and preservation of

motor function. Especially in gliomas, surgical tumor reduction has a significant impact on survival and thus has to be as extensive as possible [1] and [2]. On the other hand, motor function has to be preserved in order to secure quality of life for the patient. To achieve both goals, neurosurgeons use multiple modalities to examine, visualize, and monitor anatomy and motor Ureohydrolase function presurgically and during resection [3], [4] and [5]. For preoperative motor cortex mapping, some already established modalities are at hand, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography

(EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG). However, these measures use the distribution of metabolic (fMRI, PET) or electrical (EEG, MEG) activity for detection of activity of neuronal pathways. In theory, metabolic or electrical activity might correlate with neurophysiological pathways but do not have to [6]. In the last two years, we witnessed the increasing use of another modality: navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). It is able to reach cortical neurons by a shortly induced but strong magnetic field, causing α-motoneurons to be excited. However, as a new modality, nTMS is actually capable of giving us specific information where monosynaptic motor evoked potentials (MEP) are elicited in the precentral gyrus as shown in recently published studies [7] and [8]. Thus, this study was designed to prospectively evaluate the accuracy of nTMS in comparison to DCS as the best known standard and to an already established preoperative mapping method: fMRI.

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