There is a large component of ecological restoration that still places considerable value on past ecosystems and seeks to restore the system’s characteristics to its past state. Valuing the past when the past is not an accurate indicator for the future may fulfill a nostalgic need but may ultimately be counterproductive in terms of achieving realistic and lasting restoration outcomes. Our results indicate a significant gap
between theory and practice—understandable for the early stages of climate adaptation. We hypothesize that climate adaptation in reality may require a greater preponderance of transformative strategies, and that scientists and institutions should accelerate exploring such approaches to define and develop the next generation of conservation strategies. Acknowledgements We would like to express VX-661 appreciation
to everyone involved in the PKC inhibitor climate adaptation process and workshop, especially the 20 conservation project teams and class facilitators and knowledge managers who contributed their ideas and experiences to the collective wisdom presented in this paper. Appreciation goes to Kristin Richards Betz and Anne Wallach Thomas for building and maintaining TNC’s climate adaptation website (http://conserveonline.org/workspaces/climateadaptation) before, during, and after the workshop. This paper also benefitted from the input of our colleagues Peter Kareiva, Stacey Solie, Karen Lombard, and Dan Majka, and all the participants of the January 2010 TNC writing workshop in Tucson, mafosfamide Arizona. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Electronic supplementary material Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. Supplementary material 1 (PDF 324 kb) Supplementary material 2 (PDF 182 kb) References Araujo MB, Rahbek C (2006) How does climate change affect biodiversity? Science 313:1396–1397PubMedCrossRef Bierwagen BG, Thomas R, Kane A (2008) Capacity of management plans for aquatic invasive species to integrate climate change. Conserv Biol 22:568–574PubMedCrossRef CMP (2007) Open standards for the practice of conservation. Version 2.0. http://www.conservationmeasures.org/CMP/Site_Docs/CMP_Open_Standards_Version_2.0.pdf. Cited 22 Apr 2010 Dunwiddie PW, Hall SA, Ingraham MW, Bakker JD, Nelson KS, Fuller R, Gray E (2009) Rethinking conservation practice in light of climate change. Ecol Restor 27:320–329CrossRef Galatowitsch S, Frelich L, Phillips-Mao L (2009) Regional climate change adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation in a midcontinental region of North America. Biol Conserv 142:2012–2022CrossRef Girvetz EH, Zganjar C, Raber GT, Maurer EP, Kareiva P, Lawler JJ (2009) Applied climate-change analysis: the Climate Wizard tool.