There is growing evidence from randomized controlled trials that

There is growing evidence from randomized controlled trials that selleck products adopting such an approach in populations at high risk of

gastric cancer reduces the future incidence of gastric cancer, and economic models suggest that this would be a cost-effective strategy [27–29]. Our search did not yield any studies examining the effect of screening for, and treating, H. pylori in high-prevalence communities, but we did identify two cohort studies that reported on the efficacy of eradication therapy in preventing future development of gastric cancer in patients with other complications related to H. pylori infection [30,31]. Both recruited individuals with H. pylori-positive peptic ulcer disease. One Japanese study took 4133 individuals who had asked to receive eradication therapy, and subjects who had only requested antacid therapy following a diagnosis of peptic ulcer and determined subsequent incidence of gastric cancer in both groups [30]. After a mean duration of follow-up of 5.6 years, there was no significant Atezolizumab mouse difference in the incidence of gastric cancer in those receiving eradication therapy compared

with those who requested antacids, although the absolute proportion of gastric cancers in the latter group was twofold higher. The second study, which was conducted in Taiwan, used a health insurance database to identify 80,255 patients hospitalized as a consequence of H. pylori-positive peptic ulcer disease, all of whom received eradication therapy [31]. Patients were subdivided according to whether they received eradication therapy within 1 year of their index admission

(early PtdIns(3,4)P2 eradication cohort, 54,576 patients), or after 1 year (late eradication cohort, 25,679 patients), and subsequent rates of gastric cancer were compared between the two. Using Kaplan–Meier analysis, the cumulative incidence of gastric cancer was significantly lower in the early eradication cohort, though mean duration of follow-up was 1.3 years longer in the late eradication cohort. When standardized incidence rates for gastric cancer were calculated and compared to those for the general population, there was no difference in gastric cancer incidence between the early eradication cohort and the general population, but a significantly higher incidence in the late eradication cohort. In terms of primary prevention strategies, there has been little previous work published that has examined methods to prevent infection with H. pylori. We identified one study that reported on the potential use of a vaccine for H. pylori in the United States [32]. The authors used a dynamic transmission model to assess cost-effectiveness of a vaccine that was assumed to offer lifelong protection against infection. The effectiveness of vaccination was measured in terms of quality-adjusted life years gained, and three strategies were compared: no intervention; vaccination of infants; and vaccination of schoolchildren.

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