These findings of COX-2 and iNOS were further validated with Western blot analysis. As seen in Figure 4c, 0.1 to 1 mM SAC did inhibit TNF-α-induced COX-2 and iNOS expressions, while 10–20 μM SAC could not inhibit TNF-α-induced COX-2 and iNOS. Since these inflammatory mediators relevant to NSAID administration are transcribed through either selleck kinase inhibitor cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activation or NF-κB activation, we compared the changes of cPLA2, IκBα, and NF-κB p50/p65. As seen in Figure 4d, TNF-α administration
instead of NSAID significantly increased activation of cPLA2, as well as activation of NF-κB p50/NF-κB p65 through increased phosphorylation of IκBα. SAC in 1–5 μM significantly decreased cPLA2 as well as IκBα phosphorylation, leading to INCB018424 datasheet significant attenuation of NF-κB p65. These findings were further validated with IKKβ kinase assay (Fig. 4e), showing 1–5 μM SAC significantly decreased IKKβ activity. Host can react against oxidative change through direct anti-oxidative enzyme, and phase 2 anti-oxidative response through Nrf2 transcriptional activation and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activation. As shown in Figure 5a, SAC increased SOD-1 and GPX-2. Also, SAC significantly increased either HO-1mRNA or HO-1 expressions. Among phase 2 enzyme response, GST-π was significantly increased
with SAC in a dose-dependent manner. Nrf2 was significantly decreased after TNF-α administration, while SAC, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC as professional anti-oxidant) or trichostatin A (TCA as
professional HDAC inhibitor) all significantly Selleckchem 5-Fluoracil increased Nrf2 even under TNF-α challenge (Fig. 5b). In contrary to HO-1 and GST-π, SAC was weak at inducing γ-GCS and NQO-1, while NAC and TCA induced these enzymes. Regulation of histone deaceylator (HDAC) has been known to be associated with transcription of inflammatory mediators, after which HDAC inhibitor can enforce anti-inflammatory mediators. Therefore, HDAC inhibiting activity can be a basis for global anti-inflammation. We compared the HDAC inhibitory activity among SAC, NAC, TCA, L-cysteine (LC), diallyl trisulfide (DATS), and sulforaphane. As seen in Figure 5c, except LC, all compounds showed significant HDAC inhibitory activities. However, SAC and TCA showed the highest inhibitory activities among these compounds (P < 0.01). Lastly, what kinds of signal transduction pathway were implicated in these inhibitions through HDAC inhibition was investigated. As seen in Figure 5d, ERK1/2 and p38 was significantly attenuated with SAC, while JNK was not changed. Using the inhibitor of ERK1/2 and p38, these engagements of ERK1/2 and p38 were further confirmed.