These results suggested that many bicyclic compounds, but not mon

These results suggested that many bicyclic compounds, but not monocyclic or tricyclic compounds, repress MV production and PQS synthesis. Previously, it has been reported that several naturally occurring compounds inhibit PQS synthesis and PQS-upregulated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin. Farnesol, which BKM120 in vivo is a sesquiterpene produced by many organisms including the fungus Candida albicans, leads to decreased production of PQS

and pyocyanin (Cugini et al., 2007). Moreover, indole and 7HI also diminish P. aeruginosa PQS-controlled virulence factors (Lee et al., 2009). Whereas indole and some hydroxyindoles are bicyclic compounds, farnesol is not. Detailed analysis is needed to understand how structure is related to inhibition of PQS. In this study, we demonstrated that not only indole and its oxidation products but also some other bicyclic compounds, including some naphthalene analogs and a quinolinol, inhibit P. aeruginosa MV production and PQS synthesis. Taken together, these bicyclic compounds have a potential for antivirulence against the notorious pathogen P. aeruginosa. This study provides new information to exploit antipathogenic drugs against P. aeruginosa, not to repress the growth. Y.T. and M.T. were supported by a Scientific Research fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciences (JSPS)

fellowship. This study was supported in part by a Grant-in-aid for Scientific Researches to N.N. from The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Technology of Japan. “
“Portugal is the European country with the highest frequency of HIV-2 infection, which is mainly concentrated in West Africa. The cumulative Fludarabine chemical structure number of notified HIV-2 infections in Portugal was

1813 by the end of December 2008. To better characterize the dynamics of HIV-2 infection in the country and to obtain data that may be of use in the prevention of the spread of HIV-2, we evaluated a large pooled sample of patients. Five Portuguese hospitals provided data on HIV-2-infected patients from 1984 to the end of 2007. Data concerning demographic characteristics and clinical variables were extracted. Patients were stratified according to date of diagnosis in approximately 5-year categories. The sample included 442 patients, accounting for 37% of all HIV-2 infections notified in Portugal during that period. HIV-2-infected patients showed clearly different characteristics according to the period of diagnosis. Until 2000, the majority of HIV-2-infected patients were Portuguese-born males living in the north of the country. From 2000 to 2007, most of the patients diagnosed with HIV-2 infection had a West African origin, were predominantly female and were living in the capital, Lisbon. The average age at diagnosis and loss to follow-up significantly increased over time. HIV-2 infection has been documented in Portugal since the early 1980s and its epidemiology appears to reflect changes in population movement.

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