We compared foreign-born (FB) travelers with US-born travelers because previous studies have shown that immigrant adults and their children are less likely to be current on routine immunizations than their US-born counterparts.7,8 The case definition used for travel-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) was fever with cough or sore throat during the trip or within 1 week after return. Because of small numbers, we used exact logistic regression
to analyze ILI in the post-travel survey. The survey protocol and questionnaires were reviewed and exempted as research by the institutional review board at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We approached 3,935 travelers to Asia, of whom 2,046 (52%) Selleckchem Epacadostat were ineligible (visitors to the United States returning home, short-term US residents for less than 6 months, or people with language barriers). Of 1,889 eligible travelers, 1,301 (69%) completed the pre-travel questionnaire. Of these, 600 provided their contact information and agreed to complete the post-travel survey after returning from Asia, and 337 (56%) completed the post-travel survey either by mail, telephone, or online. Participants in the pre-
and post-travel surveys differed GSK J4 ic50 significantly by age, race, occupation, and country of birth (Table 1). Of the 1,301 participants who answered the pre-travel survey, 494 (42%) planned to visit more than one Asian country during their trip. The top three destination countries were China (including Hong Kong), Japan, and India (Table 2). The main reasons for travel were vacation (40%), visiting friends eltoprazine and relatives (37%), and
business (26%) (Table 2). US-born travelers were more likely to travel for work or vacation while FB travelers were more likely to visit their friends and relatives (VFR). FB travelers were also more likely to travel for longer duration than US-born travelers (Table 2). US-born travelers were more likely than FB travelers to plan the following activities: attend large gatherings/events, visit food markets, eat from street food vendors, and travel into rural areas (Table 2). Both FB and US-born travelers were aware of most influenza symptoms and prevention measures (Table 2), but US-born travelers were more aware that the following symptoms could indicate influenza: nausea (OR = 2.67, CI = 2.08–3.43), vomiting (OR = 2.88, CI = 2.22–3.73), diarrhea (OR = 2.58, CI = 1.92–3.48), and muscle ache (OR = 3.04, CI = 2.29–4.03). Overall, 692 (56%) participants did not receive influenza vaccine during the previous season and 3% did not know whether they had received the vaccine.