, 2013b) Further rodent studies

could be done to correla

, 2013b). Further rodent studies

could be done to correlate tremors with hyper-excitability of motor neurons using this approach and to investigate the mechanism. When performed, electrophysiological studies have been useful in identifying some motor deficits and rarely occurring seizures (Bagic et al., 2007). For example, electrophysiological assays of one study (Li et al., 2003) revealed severe denervation in a paralyzed patient, which was substantiated with abnormal MRI in the anterior lumbar spinal cord. However, clinical exams and electrophysiological tests, although necessary, have been inadequate to fully investigate physiological mechanisms of WNND, because the electrophysiological MLN0128 mw deficits could not be correlated with histopathological conditions as can be done in rodent models. MRI has been useful

in identifying spinal cord and cauda equine abnormalities that reflect the motor deficits of acute flaccid paralysis or extreme weakness (Leyssen et al., 2003 and Petropoulou et al., 2005). As mentioned above, MRI has revealed heavy involvement of the substantia nigra in a WNV patient with Parkinsonism features (Bosanko et al., 2003). Other than these examples, MRI findings in patients with WNND are generally nonspecific (Petropoulou et al., 2005). Fortunately, physiological GDC-0068 concentration and electrophysiological approaches in rodent models have been valuable for investigating mechanisms of motor function deficits of the spinal cord, neuro-respiratory deficits of the spinal cord and brainstem, autonomic dysfunction, and memory deficits. These experimental approaches will be reviewed, along with how these approaches have been used to evaluate therapeutic interventions. The general features of WNV infection of rodents are thought to be similar to human infection. Peripheral injection of WNV in mice and probably hamsters results in accumulation of WNV-infected cells in the lymph nodes and spleens,

which facilitates extra-neurologic replication, viremia, and exposure of all vascular tissues to the virus. Langerhans cells are likely vehicles for rapidly transporting the virus from the skin to Ergoloid these lymphatic tissues (Byrne et al., 2001, Diamond et al., 2003a and Johnston et al., 2000). The development of IgM or neutralizing antibodies beginning at days 3–5 for both rodents (Diamond et al., 2003a, Diamond et al., 2003b, Hunsperger and Roehrig, 2006 and Morrey et al., 2007) and human subjects (Busch et al., 2008) eventually removes the virus from the serum and from extra-neurological tissues, except for low-level persistent virus in kidneys of hamsters (Tesh et al., 2005 and Tonry et al., 2005). There are conflicting reports as to whether there is persistent shedding of WNV RNA in the urine of persons (Gibney et al.

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