28 This loss of culture and high rates of traumatic events may place Aboriginal individuals at increased risk for suicide, as well as CG resulting from traumatic loss and suicide bereavement. While little information is available on Aboriginal populations and CG, some authors have discussed the concept of a “soul wound” or historical trauma and their impact on health and grief. Duran et al discuss the
soul wound, and the symptoms that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sometimes accompany such trauma.29 For example, symptoms of pain, suffering, guilt, and psychological stress have been thought to reflect survivor syndrome, or outcomes resulting from colonialism.30 Brave Heart also argues that Aboriginal populations such as the Lakota (Teton Sioux) experience GSK1363089 molecular weight impaired grief, and that this grief results from massive cumulative traumas.30 It may be that impaired grief and CG share or reflect similar concepts and characteristics. Brave Heart defines impaired grief as resulting from the prohibition of indigenous spiritual practices, which inhibits the culturally Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical specific ways or modes of working through normative grief. This cultural bereavement can lead to poor health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorders.31 Brave Heart also discusses the traditional bereavement or grief process of the Lakota, and highlights traditional mourning practices, including visible signs of grief, in that close relatives cut their hair to symbolize the emotional
pain of losing the loved one. Because the bereaved were identified by short hair, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical their community treated them respectfully and recognized the mourning process. During this time, spirit-keeping ceremonies are also conducted, enabling the grief process for a year after the death. “Releasing of the spirit” and “wiping of the tears” ceremonies are also held to help resolve grief and to welcome the bereaved into their community. Due to the effects of historical trauma, Brave Heart argues that the Lakota were not able to resolve their grief, and experienced impaired grief.30 While impaired and complicated grief may share similarities in that grief responses are complex, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical it is understandable how the prohibition of spiritual practices and high rates of traumatic events may place First Nations individuals at increased risk for poor health outcomes. Suicide rates are an important Nature Reviews Microbiology and serious health outcome and public health issue that are linked to CG, and are extremely high for First Nations people. Suicide rates among First Nations individuals are between 3 and 6 times that of the general population.27 Canadian First Nations suicide rates are higher than in the general population in both the United States and Canada.25 In a population-based examination of the Province of Manitoba, individuals living in Northern communities (largely consisting of First Nations individuals) were also at increased likelihood for suicide and suicide attempts.