Conversely, the preventive measures for viral infection acquisiti

Conversely, the preventive measures for viral infection acquisition and its timely diagnosis allow for a proper management of exacerbations, and reduction of the number of hospitalizations and unnecessary additional tests, especially in children who are febrile at the time of assessment. The association between viral infection

and asthma in childhood still has several points that need clarification, especially the actual role of viruses in triggering exacerbations and that of inhaled corticosteroids in its attenuation. Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Goiás (N° 20120267001128). The authors declare no conflicts of interest. To the Laboratory of Virology of the Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública of the Universidade MK-2206 order Federal de Goiás. “
“Metabolic bone disease is characterized by changes in skeletal mineralization due to poor bone mineral content (BMC) accrual. In preterm newborns (PTNs), the BMC is inversely proportional to birth weight and gestational age; decreased BMC is also related to inadequate intake of calcium and phosphorus in extra-uterine life.1,

2 and 3 Risk factors related to inadequate mineralization are: very-low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, prolonged use of parenteral nutrition, use of diuretics and glucocorticoids, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, delay in introduction of food, low mineral supply in the diet, and long immobilization periods.4, 5 and 6 The use of supplemented human milk is able to provide

proper growth and bone mineralization in the short term.7 Metabolic bone NVP-BGJ398 in vitro disease of PTNs has no characteristic clinical presentation. It can be observed with longitudinal growth arrest, maintenance of head circumference, and even radiological signs similar to rickets, with spontaneous fractures described in 10% of PTNs with very-low birth weight.8 In PTNs with Ureohydrolase mineral deficiency, some biochemical markers may be altered. Hypophosphaturia and hypercalciuria that precede serum alterations (reduction in calcium and phosphorus, and elevated alkaline phosphatase) and radiological alterations can be observed.5 and 9 Other more specific serum or urinary markers, such as bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) may be used for growth and bone remodeling assessment.10, 11 and 12 Additionally, bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered the gold standard method to assess bone mineralization in newborns, showing high precision and accuracy.4, 10, 11, 13, 14 and 15 The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineralization by DXA in the first 6 months of corrected age in PTNs compared with FTNs.

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