Excellent examples of lipidomic LC-MS analysis have recently b

.. Excellent examples of lipidomic LC-MS analysis have recently been shown for human plasma [34] and subcellular organelle lipidomics of TLR-4 activated macrophages [35] by the LIPID MAPS consortium. These publications show very well that the whole lipidome of an organism or tissue cannot be determined by a single experimental setup but rather by a combination of various methods, most of them LC-MS based. The fastest and simplest way to monitor changes in a lipid profile by LC-MS is LC/single ion monitoring #medical keyword# (SIM)/MS [36]. This method is based on ESI full scan quadrupole MS of intact molecular adduct ions. Plotting of retention time versus m/z and intensity

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical provides a 3D lipidomic fingerprint of a sample, which can be used to monitor changes between statistical groups by differential profiles in a fast and comprehensive manner. A very efficient way to maximize sensitivity is targeted lipidomics with HPLC-triple quadrupole instrumentation in MRM mode. Due to the instrument’s high dynamic range and the selectivity of retention time in conjunction with known precursor / product ion pairs, it is the method of choice for lipid quantitation. Recent developments in scan speed of

triple quadrupole mass spectrometers Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical result in a duty cycle of up to 100 Hz, which provides the basis for fast and reliable quantitation of whole lipid classes within one chromatographic run [37,38,39]. In some rare cases, molecular species of lipids are composed of exactly the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical same

building blocks, resulting in the same elemental composition and the same fragments, which renders MRM analysis basically useless. In this case, good chromatographic separation is mandatory as shown for bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) and cardiolipin (CL) by the group of Liebisch [38]. A good compromise between targeted and non-targeted analysis on a triple quadrupole instrument are precursor ion- and constant neutral loss scans. Although sensitivity for such scans might not be as high as in MRM mode, it opens the possibility Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to find unexpected species within the lipid classes surveyed by the respective precursor or constant neutral loss scans. Such systems are quite frequently used with ESI and reversed phase HPLC coupling. An excellent many example of this technique is shown by Retra et al. [40]. The applied very shallow 60 min gradient results in baseline separation of glycerophospholipid species. The use of constant neutral loss scans for phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) identification and quantitation is shown by Clark et al. [41]. Identification of lipid molecular species with low resolution instrumentation is best achieved by MSn analysis, because this kind of analysis provides a high degree of structural information. The preferred instrumentation is either (linear) ion trap or triple quadrupole technology.

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