Such intervention is supported by phenological information from h

Such intervention is supported by phenological information from herbarium specimens and

up-to-date seasonal climate data (e.g., rainfall, which Crizotinib affects flowering and seeding), thus enabling conservationists to target collecting sites and times for seed (and pollen) harvesting. The MSBP, RBG, Kew applied such an approach in producing seed collecting guides for seasonally-dry habitats in more than 10 countries. It is worth noting however that seed collection in moist forests can be hindered by low species density and less predictability in fruiting to a specific month, plus supra-annual fruiting. Seed collecting from tall trees located in inaccessible areas may be a further challenge. In undisturbed forest, the high predation of fruits and seeds by the local fauna may reduce even more seed availability for storage or propagation. Future developments in online and in-field mapping, better integration of multiple datasets (climate, species, weather, satellite imagery, etc.), and access to high resolution and hyperspectral imaging will improve the capability of these innovative conservation tools and are areas of major activity by botanic gardens. There are numerous efforts to collate information on species biology of relevance to ex situ conservation,

at the national ( NatureServe Explorer, 2014, for the USA and Canada), regional ( EUFGIS, 2014, for the EU) and global ( REFORGEN, 2014) levels. In some cases, these information sources collate a broad range of information (e.g., Selleckchem MEK inhibitor on the seed trade, seed handling,

plant pests, relevant institutes, education programmes) and provide recommendations for ex situ conservation activities (e.g., EUFORGEN, 2014). However, there are few publically accessible databases or knowledge management systems that are seed specific. Examples include GRIN (2014) and SID ( RBG Kew, 2014b). Although not exclusively dedicated to trees, there is much information that can be gleaned from searching by the next name of the species. Searches on SID are possible for seed chemistry (oils and protein), germination, mass (thousand seed weight), longevity and morphology. Even when there is no data on the species of interest, there may be information on a con-generic species or a perspective that can be gleaned from information across species in the same family. An example of such an analysis is shown in Table 2 for the trees listed in the Global Trees Campaign, a partnership between Fauna and Flora International and BCGI. This is the only international campaign dedicated to saving threatened trees. The situation is critical as over 8,000 tree species, 10% of the world’s total, are threatened with extinction. Other sources of information on tree species to draw upon include various species-based information leaflets or booklets that summarise, inter alia, taxonomy, distribution, uses and seed biology.

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