Therefore, further development was initiated by several groups I

Therefore, further development was initiated by several groups. In 1995, Naeff [53] published the development of a liposome production technique in industrial scale based on the ethanol injection technique. Their production system was used for the liposomal encapsulation of econazole, an certainly imidazole derivative for the topical treatment of dermatomycosis, and combined the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical principles

of the ethanol injection system and high shear homogenization. Additional production technology patents from several companies were filed dealing with liposome production systems based on the ethanol injection technique (Optime, Liposome Comp. Martin, Tenzel) [54–57]. Wagner et al. have also extensively worked in this field, leading to the development of the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cross-flow injection system. Based on the ethanol injection

technique, they developed a scalable and sterile production technique leading from the conventional batch selleckchem process to a continuous procedure [58]. Herein, the principal item is the cross-flow injection module [59], especially designed for this purpose. This specially conceived unit has the benefit of defined and characterized injection streams and permits liposome manufacture regardless of production scale because scale is determined only by free disposable vessel volumes. By this, process development is performed in lab scale at a volume of about 20mL. Once the parameters are defined, an easy scale-up Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical can be performed by changing the process Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical vessels

only. In addition, these process vessels can be sterilized, either by steam or autoclavation. All raw materials such as buffer solutions, lipid ethanol solution, and even N2 for applying the injection pressure are transferred into the sanitized and sterilized system via 0.2μm filters to guarantee an aseptic production [60]. Liposome size can be controlled by the local lipid concentration at the injection point which is defined by the lipid concentration in ethanol, the injection whole diameter, the injection pressure, and the flow rate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the aqueous phase. By varying these parameters, different liposome sizes suitable for the intended purpose can be prepared. These defined process parameters are furthermore responsible for highly reproducible results with respect to vesicle diameters and encapsulation rates [61]. Tangential flow filtration is the next process step to remove ethanol as well as not entrapped drug. Another important advantage of this method is the suitability Carfilzomib of the entrapment of many different drug substances [61] such as large hydrophilic proteins by passive encapsulation, small amphiphilic drugs by a one-step remote loading technique, or membrane association of antigens for vaccines [62]. 4.2. Proliposome-Liposome Method The proliposome-liposome method is based on the conversion of the initial proliposome preparation into a liposome dispersion by dilution with an aqueous phase [50].

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